Thursday, September 19, 2019

A Curious Portrait of a Man Who Resembles Shakespeare Holding a Hawk

Called Sir Thomas Monson, artist unknown, c. 1610, source photo Bonham's (privately own, image via wikicommons)
One of the purposes of this blog is to search for misidentified portraits of Will Shakespeare. Along those lines this excellent portrait of a very stylish courtier hawk-in-hand caught my eye recently because of the costume's similarities to the famous Droeshout engraving of Shakespeare. Then I started noticing other curious details, most notably that the sitter seems to have been originally painted as bald--or at least the bald outline of his head is visible beneath the red hair.  (Obviously this could be an illusion caused by pigment damage). Anyway I decided to spend some time pondering this portrait.

I was interested in the skin discoloration on the face (another Shakespeare telltale), the near lack of any eyebrows (which was just odd), and the two-tone beard. These anomalies, I should add, are not visible in the one known copy of the portrait (see the below comparison).

It's also curious that at some point the original portrait was overpainted to misidentify the sitter as, "Sr L'Estrange/Mordaunt Bart/ June 26th 1611." Everyone seems to agree now that this inscription is incorrect. (Never trust inscriptions or heraldry on old portraits.) The costume could fit the time frame of 1610 as advertised, although the costume could also be dated as early as c. 1600.

The portrait is now identified as Sir Thomas Monson, the Master Falconer to King James I. Monson was involved in the 1613 murder of Thomas Overbury, a scandal which ruined Monson (and Overbury) both financially and politically. Another possible portrait of Monson, identified as such in its auction catalogue at Philip Mold Historical Portraits, depicts a man who does not much resemble the sitter in the hawk portrait. One of these two men is not Tom Monson. 
Above: called Sir Thomas Monson c. 1620 (left, photo source Philip Mold Historical Portraits) and the Hawk portrait of so-called Monson c. 1610 (via wikicommons). Bear in mind that as varnish ages it can alter pigment color so it's usually a good rule to disregard eye color. Do these portrait depict the same sitter?
The 1620 portrait of so-called Tom Monson (above left) gets an entire chapter of discussion in my upcoming book STALKING SHAKESPEARE (Scribner, 2021) so I won't go into details here, but this other Monson, the long-faced man fond of hawks, I also find intriguing. With that in mind, let's have a closer look at that scalpline. Am I imagining the bald dome visible beneath the red hair? Or is the hair simply highlighted blond? Or is this effect caused by water damage? Again, the copy does not show this two-tone effect evident in both the hair and the strangely blurred and discolored beard. 
Thomas Monson (image via wikicommons). Note what appears to be the outline of his head's bald dome visible through the red hair. Also of interest is the curious multi-colored beard and near lack of eyebrows.
As to the known copy, here is a side-by-side comparison of the two.
Left, the original portrait called Sir Thomas Monson, and, right, the copy. (Both of these images are from Wkicommons) The tabbed, overlapped skirt of the doublet is fairly unique and might be used to better date the portrait. Note how the doublet conforms to the natural shape of the body without any bombast padding, a style which indicates c. 1595 or later.
 Naturally my interest in the portrait was its relationship, if any (costume aside) to Shakespeare. For the sake of fun here are two comparisons, the first with the dubiously debunked Flower portrait and the second with the 1623 First Folio's Droeshout engraving.
Above: left, the Flower portrait (Royal Shakespeare Company, image via wikicommons) and, right, called Thomas Monson (via wikicommons). Though hardly twins, there are some similarities, including the circular path of the sitter's left eyebrow that seems to curve back into the outside corner of the eye.
Above: the Droeshout engraving (Folger Shakespeare Library, DC) and Sir Thomas Monson (wikicmmons, privately owned). Note similarity of collar and guarded doublet (image via Wikicommons).
I'm adding a comparison below with a portrait sent to me by Mark Anderson, author of the excellent "Shakespeare" By Another Name, who noticed a resemblance between the sitter (below left) and "Shakespeare" (by which Mr. Anderson means Edward de Vere). This unidentified Italian portrait was owned by the Nazi Herman Goring, who was a huge Shakespeare fan. The sitter is officially unidentified. (Click here for more details on the Goring portrait and its relationship, if any, to Shakespeare.)
Getty Museum's Unknown Gentleman by Veronese (left) and Tom Monson (via wikicommons, right)
And below is the scamped inscription that is now understood to be incorrect.
(image via wikicommons)
And, finally, here is a brief write up of on the portrait, written by a fellow falconer, I discovered online. The author is Fergus Beeley.
One of the premises of my upcoming book STALKING SHAKESPEARE is my conviction that Shakespeare's portraits were mass-produced while he was alive and that many these portraits have been lost, overpainted, and/or misidentified. Anyone familiar with the canon understands Shakespeare intimacy with hawking, a sport he knew inside-out even though it was restricted to nobility by the law. As to the Oxfordians who read this blog, I'm sure they've already noticed the sitter's auburn hair. I wonder if the staff of office would be appropriate in any way to the Edward de Vere, England's Lord Great Chamberlain? Any help in the comments section would be appreciated.

Monday, September 16, 2019

A Curious, Rare, & Beautiful Portrait of an Unidentified Elizabethan Couple

Above: Unknown Couple by Unknown Hand (private collection, image via wikicommons.)
I came upon this excellent double portrait of an Elizabethan couple via wikicommons yesterday and sat down with it this morning and within two hours time thought, for a moment, that I had identified the two sitters. 

The portrait is listed as an unknown couple by unknown artist of the English School. The date 1596 is inscribed above the couple. (Never trust inscriptions!) It's curious that a double portrait would not have a coat of arms or any inscriptions aside from a date because the whole point of a double portrait was to establish family ties.

Upon seeing this portrait, I immediately thought of a similar portrait of a woman by the painter Hieronimo Custodis, but I soon learned that the portrait it reminded me of (see below) is no longer attributed to Custodis. The below portrait supposedly depicts Lady Mary Harington, and there is a excellent discussion of that portrait online in an article from the British Arts Journal (Autumn 2011) entitled, "A New Portrait of Mary Rogers, Lady Harington."

The 1933 date on the Mary Harington portrait is incorrect (never trust inscriptions!). That portrait, as the article explains, was identified via its similarities to two other portraits of Mary Harington (shown below). It's worth noting that Mary's husband John Harington, a godson of Elizabeth I, invented the flush toilet. He was also a well-respected poet with an acerbic wit.
Above: called Lady Mary Harington bu unknown artist (private collection, image via
Two other portraits supposedly of Lady Mary Harington, both of which show similar style dresses (image via
Since the unknown man's standing collar with small figure-of-eight ruff seemed more in line with men's costumes from the 1560's, I decided to consult Jane Ashelford's DRESS IN THE AGE OF ELIZABETH, and inside that book I came upon the double portrait (seen below) of Sir Reginald and Lady Mohun. The resemblance between the two couples seemed fairly strong to my eye. The Mohun portrait was painted in 1603 and is considered to be the earliest example of a full-length double portrait of a couple in England. It's also the first portrait I've seen that depicts affection between two people in that their arms are intertwined. 
Above: Sir Reginald and Lady Mohun, unknown artist, image via Philip Mold Historical Portraits. Ashelford indicates the portrait is owned by the collection of Lord Dunraven, Adare. This photo is cut off at the knee but the portrait itself is full length.
There are similarities between the two couples but there are differences as well, so I am simply posting this to draw attention to what I consider to be a striking double portrait of a still unidentified couple. It's worth stating that Reginald Mohun was married three times and therefore the unknown double portrait might depict him with one of his other wives. Or it might not depict him at all. But it's a lovely portrait that has far more personality to it than most Elizabethan paintings. If you know anything about this double portrait please leave a note in the comments.

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

A Curious Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh Scatter Shot with a Thousand Pearls

This is my favorite Elizabethan portrait by William Segar. Painted in 1598, Sir Walter Raleigh displays himself bedecked in pearls in a post-Cadiz victory portrait.  The convoluted multi-layer ruff collar is typical of 1590-1620's. We can see the death of the peascod doublet here as the belly has returned to normal with no padded bulge. The trunk hose is still padded but short (called a "mini bum roll") and attached to canions. The bejeweled buttons on his pearl-laden jerkin are unique. He wears a wavy hem, not a ruffle, of transparent linen at the wrist, which is also unusual for this time. There must be a thousand pearls adorning this man. Raleigh had adopted the pearl as his personal symbol. It was also one of Elizabeth's symbols. A pretty amazing portrait.

Click here to see larger image (it's well worth it).
Above: Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh by William Segar (National Portrait Gallery of Ireland (image via wikicommons)

Friday, September 6, 2019

A Very Curious Portrait of Fulke Greville Who Called Himself "Shakespeare's Master" and Claimed To Have Written Antony & Cleopatra

Above: Fulke Greville, said to have been painted by Edmund Lodge in c. 1620 (image via wikicommons with no indication of source). This portrait was not painted in 1620, as advertisized. The costume is inflated with the bombast padding popular in the 1580's. The ruff collar, padded mini trunk hose (called a bum roll), and peascod doublet all indicate 1580's or early 90's. It's also obvious that this portrait has been scamped and rubbed.
The Statesmen and Favourites of England Since the Reformation (1670) by David Lloyd quotes Fulke Greville as having stated, "I am the master of Shakespeare." We are left to wonder what Greville meant by that, especially since he also claimed to having penned the play Antony and Cleopatra.

The word "master" had a specific meaning in the status of a playwright. In his "Prologue to Volpone" (1606) Ben Jonson claims that regarding the creation of his play Volpone

"Five weeks fully penned it--
From his own hand, without a co-adjutor,
Novice, journeyman or tutor."  (lines 16-18) 

In his Shakespeare and Co., Stanley Wells conjectures on what Jonson meant by the above:
These four nouns usefully define a range of the roles that a collaborator might enact.  A coadjutor would an equal collaborator, a novice a kind of apprentice, a journeyman a hack brought in perhaps to supply a comic subplot, and a tutor a master craftsman guiding a novice.
In terms of portraits, the "master" or "tutor" ran the studio and finished only the more important aspects of a portrait. The master was the overall genius who dictated style and completed the final product, the final draft. Greville was either making the claim that he was Shakespeare's teacher or that he was in charge of the final drafts of Shakespeare's plays.

Greville, I should add, was the Recorder of Stratford Upon Avon and wrote sonnets that bear a resemblance to Shakespeare's in style. A.W.L. Saunders recently published a book called Shakespeare's Master arguing that Greville wrote the works of Shakespeare. Sir Derek Jacobi blurbed it and seemed impressed. Regardless of who did or didn't write Shakespeare, Greville appears to have been a remarkable courtier who had some footprint on Shakespeare.

He and Sir Philip Sidney swore a lifelong oath to each other as school boys, and they nurtured each other's writing projects until Sidney died young in battle. Greville later became a follower of Countless Pembroke and the studio of writers she patronized. Her husband's acting troop performed Shakespeare's early plays. Greville's plans to write a true history of Elizabethan England got vetoed by Sir Robert Cecil, who wanted no such history to exist and denied him access to state papers. 

Fulke Greville died tragically after being stabbed by a servant. A doctor filled his wounds with pig fat, a folk cure. The cut became infected and four weeks later he died.

As to the portrait, which appears to have been painted in the 1580's or early 90's (and certainly not c.1620 as indicated) the sitter looks to be around 30-ish. (Greville would have been over 60 years old in 1620.) This portrait has been rubbed extensively perhaps to hide telltales along the hat, the side of the sitter's face, and whatever inscriptions etc once existed in the upper corners.
Above: portrait, called Fulke Greville (source from wikicommons) has been rubbed and extirpated to hide details along the left side of the sitter's face, his hat, and to destroy whatever inscriptions etc existed to either side of his head. Note that eye color is different and that the sitter's right eye appears damaged.
 Above: left, Fulke Greville (via wikicommons) and, right, the Droeshout engraving of Shakespeare (Folger Shakespeare Library). The Droeshout image has been reversed in this side-by-side. Many engravings were reversed images of painted portraits. We don't know if the Droeshout was reversed or not as the template portrait it was copied from has been lost.

Tuesday, September 3, 2019

20 Essential Questions To Ask When Attempting To Date An Elizabethan Portrait By Costume: Men's Portraits

Horace Vere. Gorget on neck indicates military background. Mini-skirt-like bum roll (with only minimal stuffing) and attached canion leggings. Cuffs. Pronounced peascod bulge to doublet (turned inward, a downward hook). Padded Bishop sleeves. Falling linen band collar with open V neck. Jerkin skirt medium. Hair short. (See correct date of portrait at end of post.*) Artist is George Glower (public domain, via wikicommons).
Below are 20 question that should help you date any Elizabethan portrait of a male courtier

Two recommended links for further delving:
--The Essential Glossary of Elizabethan Costume
--A More Extensive Guide to Dating Elizabethan Portraits By Costume: the Men

1. Is the sitter wearing a standing collar hugging the neck (up to the ear at times) that supports an open-at-front neck ruff? Maximum collar height to ears was during 1560's, then 70's, kept subsiding.

2. Is he wearing cuffs or ruffles at the wrist? Cuffs came into fashion .c 1583. Ruffles all but disappeared within a few years.
Above: detail Robert Dudley by van der Muelin (Yale Center for British Arts). Standing collar peaks at ear, pickadil tabs at all hems of doublet with double row at wings, wrist ruffles, non peascod doublet with no stuffing at sleeves, small figure-of-eight neck ruff open at neck. Date revealed at bottom of post.**
3. Is there a peascod bulge to the lower doublet? Peascod style was in fashion from 1575-c. 1596. If bulge is comically pronounced, turned inward like a hook (see top photo) then it's probably early 1590's--aka "peak peascod"--especially if the doublet is paired with very short, puffy upper hose.

4. Is his hair fabulously permed? 1585-88 was the glorious Armada perm. Curled hair remained stylish into 1600's. Hair mostly short in 60's and 70's. Curly and a bit longer in the 80's. Could fall too the ears and shoulders in the 1590's onward. Short hair always remained in style as well.

5. Is he holding or wearing a gauntleted glove, meaning the kind with wide fabulously decorated wrists coverings? Gauntlets came into fashion starting c. 1590. Note: holding a gauntlet in a portrait was a pose of nobility.

6. Does his upper hose (called trunk hose) resemble a stuffed mini skirt? The  mini bum roll (see top photo) short but stuffed wide at hips and often paired with canions (tubular leggings to the knees) popular 1580's until mid 90's. 

7. Are the trunk hose a bit longer to mid thigh and puffy? Before 1570, this popular onion-shape style of upper hose was called the kettledrum.

8. Is he wearing baggy breeches to lower thigh or knee? These "Venetians" were most popular, and at their most pear-shaped, from the 1580's through the 90's. First introduced in 1570's but at that point hugged the thigh.
Above: Martin Frobisher by Ketel (Bodleian Library). Baggy Venetian hose, picadils at skirt, wing, and collar of doublet. Standing collar with ruff. Leg-of-mutton sleeves (stuff from shoulder to elbow but taping toward wrist). Med-long doublet skirt. Wrist ruffles. See bottom of post for dating ***
9. Is he wearing thin or thick chains across his chest? Thick chains worn like jewelry throughout 1560's for both men and women. Thin chains, often combined into ropes, came into fashion in the 70's and remained popular forever.

10. Is there a pickadil series of tabs hemmed along any garment? These tabs (see Dudley and Frobisher portraits above) were used for support and decoration at the end of the sleeve, collar, or skirt. Often looped, they were very popular in 60's and 70's but not as much in the 80's onward.

11. Are there garishly large buttons on the doublet and/or doublet sleeves? These buttons were popular starting c. 1587 but only for a few years. Not a 90's thing.
Above: closed figure-of-eight ruff with large buttons. Peregrine Bertie by H. Custodis. Image from Weiss Gallery via wikicommons. Date of portrait revealed at bottom of post.****
12. Are the sleeves padded from upper shoulder all the way to wrists? Known as bishop sleeves (see top photo) they came into fashion c. 1575 until 1600. Note how whole doublet looks inflated. Very popular in 80's sometimes without wings on shoulders.

13. Are the sleeves padded only from the upper shoulder to the elbow so that the arms resemble a leg of mutton? (See photo below.) Similar to the bishop sleeves (see Frobisher portrait above) in popularity c. 1570-1600. Like all puff it peaked in the 80's.

14. Is there no padding in the sleeve? No padding was poplar 1550-70's and again in the 1590's onward. During the 90's onward fashion started to dispense with bombast padding in doublet and sleeves, and returned to the natural male form of the 1560's-70's.   

15. Is there a circular linen ruff figure-of-eight collar that encloses the entire neck? If so, it's likely mid to late 1570's to 1590's. French cartwheel atrocity ruff started early 80's. Ketel's portrait of Richard Goodrick contains earliest cartwheel I've found c. 1578.

16. Does that figure-of-eight collar have several layers, sometimes convoluted, and/or a slightly crushed-looking figure-of-eight pattern? Popular 1590 to 1620's. 

17. Is there an Italian cutwork collar shaped like a fan or shield behind the sitter's head and tilted forward by an unseen support system? Italian cutwork first became popular in 1590's. The fan-frame style called a whisk or golilla became fashionable c. 1600.
Above: Sir Thomas Overbury (but you can pretend he's Will Shakespeare if you want!) c. 1610 (Cobbe Family Collection, image via wikicommons). Fan-like Italian cutwork collar known as a "whisk" (rabato support system visible). Doublet and sleeves without padding. Hair short and brushed upward with gum.
18: Is there only a narrow falling band for a collar? Plain neck band, often turned down on shoulders, or round neck with V opening became popular c. 1585-1620, but falling bands are always present in Elizabethan fashion. Often layered with transparent upper one 1590's-1600's.

19. Is the doublet skirt narrow, a mere border? This style was popular between 1575-85.

20. Does he look like an inflated and vainglorious popinjay? 1580's were the decade of bombast stuffing and of the most asinine fashion--most of it imported from France. 90's onward a reaction against 80's back to human form of 60's and 70's with no or little stuffing. 

Final exam:
Above: called Martin Frobisher, explorer, after Custodis. (Dulwich Picture Gallery, image via wikicommons.) Portrait date below *****
Portrait dates:
* portrait of Horace Vere 1594.
** portrait of Dudley c.
***portrait Frobisher 1577 
**** portrait of Bertie 1588-90.
*****portrait of Frobisher c. 1590.
Sources consulted
--DRESS IN THE ELIZABETHAN AGE (BT Batsford Ltd) by Jane Ashelford

Friday, August 30, 2019

Portrait of Man In Armor Looking Damn Silly

From the Royal Collection
Not sure who this goofy looking jack is, but I just stumbled upon his jpeg inside my computer and it gave me a laugh. Closed linen collar edged with reticilla looks decapitatingly late 1570's-ish (collar remained a part of the undershirt until c. 1585). Peascod bulge to lower armor indicates post 1575. Hair and moustaches being brushed upward by use of gum started in 1570.

For more information please read my post How To Date Elizabethan Portraits by Fashion. It's the only guide on the internet that shows you how to recognize the telltale signs that let you date a portrait to within a few years. 

Also helpful might be my glossary of essential terms for understanding Elizabethan fashion.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Mystery Portrait: Ketel's Painting of Richard Goodricke Appears to be Dated Incorrectly

Above: Richard Goodricke of Yorkshire by Cornelis Ketel c. 1579. Source photo Weiss Gallery, London. (Art Gallery of South Australia). Latin inscription next to comet translates into "Never downward." Note pinky ring.
  The dating of this portrait raises some questions (or eyebrows) regarding fashion. The portrait is dated c.1579, I suspect, via the comet painted in the upper-right corner. (The Great comet was most visible in England between Nov. thru Jan. 1578.) Here are a few things to consider about this portrait.
--Cartwheel figure-of-eight ruff from France didn't come into fashion until the mid-1580's. (Imho this is, by far, the largest man's ruff ever recorded in the 1570's.) The heavily starched linen ruff did not become a separate item, detached from shirt, until the mid-1580's yet this is clearly a detachable pleated figure-of-eight cartwheel-style ruff.
--Sitter has cuffs instead of wrist ruffs. Cuffs came into fashion c. 1583 after which wrist ruffs vanished. So why no wrist ruffs in late 1570's?
--Sword belt heavily engraved, a style popular in the 1590's.
--Mini bum roll (upper) trunk hose padded at hips ending upper thigh, first became fashionable in 1580's.
--Canions, aka the tubular leggings from upper thigh to knee stocking, also came into fashion in the 1580's.
--Short French cloak is also feature of early 1580's, though soon replaced by longer French cloak which fell to the knee and even ankles. Both were worn draped over left shoulder.
Above: Presumably this is the Great comet of 1577-78 as painted by the Dutch painter Cornelis Ketel. Or maybe it's an Elizabethan UFO.
Ketel's sitter is said to be Richard Goodricke, who was born about 1550 in Ribston, Yorkshire, and died there in 1601. Whoever this dandy was he was at the forefront of fashion.

The painter Ketel left England forever (we think) in 1581. Ketel's signature supposedly appears on this portrait's lower right corner (not visible in photos). Ketel usually placed his monograms centered directly under the upper inscriptions.

The sitter does bear a resemblance to a certain earl notorious for French cartwheel ruffs.
Above: (left) Katherine Chiljan's portrait said (by some) to depict Edward de Vere (Katherine Chiljan private collection, source photo from cover of her book of de Vere's poetry), and (right) Richard Goodricke by C. Ketel (Art Gallery of South Australia).
It's worth noting that Ketel's friend van Manders recorded that Ketel painted de Vere ("the Duke of Oxford") sometime before 1581.
Above: coat of arms (via wikimedia). So far I haven't been able to reconcile this shabbily painted coat with any heraldry from the Yorkshire Goodricke family. And what kind of animal is that perched above the cushion? Odd how the animal's head extends outside of the painting.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Essential Glossary for Elizabethan Fashion

 The Queen's Porter by C. Ketel 1580 (Royal Collection at Hampton Court). Tall, wide-brimmed hat with band and ostrich feather. Jerkin worn open at belly, slashed, with med-long skirt bordered in looped pickadils. Slightly padded "Peascod" belly to doublet shape. Venetian hose pear-shaped falling past knees. Linen figure-of-eight ruff at neck and wrist. Sleeves slightly padded near shoulder but close to skin from elbow to wrists.

Other helpful links:

Sources consulted: 
--DRESS IN THE ELIZABETHAN AGE (BT Batsford Ltd) by Jane Ashelford 


Aglets-metal tags used for fastening or trimming, very popular 1550-60s.
Armada perm-close curls all over extremely popular during 1585-88.
Band-(also falling band) linen collar either attached to shirt or not, often in fashion, especially toward end of century.
Bishop sleeves-padded with bombast from shoulder to wrist in style popular with clerics.
Blackwork-black silk embroidery frilled upon top of white linen collars, cuffs etc. Other colors popular too. 1550's-60's.
Bongrace-bill or brim of a bonnet or cap
Cadiz beard-1596 short-lived fashion of long, square beard following the Earl of Essex's victory in Cadiz. Remained popular only with older men.
Canions-tubular close-fitting extensions of the hose from thigh to knee stocking--contrasting pattern, often metallic in appearance, highlighted men's gams
Caul-hairnet of gold thread or silk, lined, decorated
Chemise-smock, lady's undergarment
Codpiece-purse bulge near genitals used for storage, diminished after 1560 and disappeared in 1590s.
Clothes horse-a man who's never been in battle but who dresses with military accessories such as a gorget on his neck or a scarf draped across his chest and tied under the left arm.
Coif-small linen cap tied under chin
Cony-rabbit fur
Cutwork-from Italy needle-lace design filled with geometric figures aka reticella used to fill collars displayed in fan-like fashion.
Damask-rich silk floral or geometric
Doublet-garment often leather worn over the shirt, very popular throughout Elizabeth's time, decorated with panels, slashes, pinking, attaches to sleeves at hemmed wings, often with a peascod bulge (of bombast) to lower stomach. Usually worn under a jerkin (jacket).
Farthingale-understructure to produce either funnel- or bell- shape in women's dresses. 
French cloak-short, slung over left shoulder, got longer, reached knee, then ankle length after 1580. 
Galligaskins-breeches, baggy, to knees.
Gauntlet-the wrist covering section of a glove, almost always ornamented.
Girdle-belt or cord or chain that accentuates waistline.
Gorget-metal military yoke adapted for polite society.
Gull-loud, loudly dressed, over-perfumed, and late-arriving dandies famous for baiting the actors at theaters. 
Gum-used after 1570 to brush hair and moustaches upward.
Guard-bordered with bands of contrasting material.
Hangers-support of sword attached to sword belt.
Hose-garment at hips for men, often bombasted and paneled, could extend as far as knees or end in bum roll for mini-skirt effect. Terms also applied to attached stockings. 
Jerkin-jacket-like garment worn over doublet that conformed to doublets shaped sometimes sleeveless, worn closed down center, embroidered, slashed, pinked.
Kirtle-skirt (see below).
Leg of mutton style sleeves-detachable with padded shoulders to elbow but close to body from elbow to wrist.
Marquisetto beard-cut close to chin but more visible at peak.
Mercer-seller of imported fabrics.
Mini bum roll-short upper hose wide at waist ending above thighs for mini-skirt effect to highlight men's gams, popular 1580's-90's.
Oes-eyelets used to decorate.
Partlet-cloth or accessory that covers upper chest.
Peascod-doublet style with padded belly popular 1575-95.
Pinking-small holes or slits/slashes used for decoration .
Pickadil-tabs sometimes looped used decoratively at borders (mostly before 1590) also used to support small ruffs along collar especially in 1553-70.
Pickdevant beard-short and pointed with brushed up moustaches after 1570.
Popinjay-a man perceived as overly fond of fashion, a dandy.
Puffs-material or lining pulled through slash garment.
Rebato-underpropper support system behind head for tilted ruff or cutwork collars; also a name for those type collars.
Revers-upper part of garment folded back near neck to resemble a collar--same material as rest of garment.
Ruff-starched linen folded in patterned sets used for collars and wrists.
Skirt-bottom end of doublet or jerkin often guarded or decorated with looped pickadils etc. 
Slashing-slits used decoratively.
Slops-baggy French breeches that sagged to knees.
Spanish farthingale-hooped triangle-shaped under support system to woman's skirt, popular in 1550's-1570's.
Spanish kettledrum-most popular men's hose till 1570, onion-shaped, reached to mid-thigh.
Standing collar-prominent feature of doublet until 1570 with collar reaching to ears and topped with pickadils that supported small ruff.
Starch-arrived in England c. early 1570's, revolutionized the linen collar.
Stomacher-stiffened material shaped like an arrow tapering toward center of bodice; it purpose was to makes the waist appear more narrow.
Tippet--short shoulder cape worn with cloak or gown.
Trunk hose-swelled material filled with bombast from the waistband, often onion shaped, later evolved into slops or breeches.
Vandyke beard-long and pointed 1560 onward.
Venetians-slops, full breeches that close at the knee, either baggy of close fitting
Wings-raised shoulders of the doublet where the sleeves are attached, hemmed and decorative to hide attachment points. 
Wrist ruffle-ruff at wrist attached to shirt, replaced by cuffs in 1583

Monday, August 26, 2019

How To Date Elizabethan Portraits By Costume: Men's Portraits

Above: Robert Dudley, the First Earl of Leicester c. 1560 by van der Muelin (Yale Center for British Art). Wrist ruffles, jerkin slashed and pinked vertically with long skirt ending in pickadil border. Jerkin (outer jacket) sleeveless and winged with double layer of pickadil tabs. Tall standing collar also ends with pickadils. Sleeves of doublet are tight to skin without bombast padding. Non-peascod doublet attached down center with buttons top/bottom and hooks in center. Codpiece still prominent. Hose paneled, padded for onion-shape. Small figure-of-eight ruff collar worn open at neck (ruff likely attached to shirt as were wrist ruffles). Hair short all around. Beard forked and decorated with beaded strings or yarn. Black squat cap beret-like pleated with ostrich feather.

Sources used: 
--DRESS IN THE ELIZABETHAN AGE (BT Batsford Ldd) by Jane Ashelford (Ashelford, DIAE) 
--FASHION IN THE TIME OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (Shire Books) by Sarah Jane Downing (Downing, FTWS) 

Other Helpful Links:
Essential Glossary for Elizabethan Fashion
20 Essential Questions To Ask When Attempting to Date An Elizabethan Portrait of a Male Courtier 

--Hair close cropped all over 1545-1600 but more general from 1560-1570. (HEC16C)
--1570-1600 hair brushed up stiffly from temples and forehead. Moustache usually brushed upward to match. Brushed up effect achieve with gum. Back hair usually short. P141 (HEC16C)
--1580-1650s close curls all over (note: most pronounced during the Armada perm craze of the late 1580s) (HEC16C)
--1590-1650s longer hair reaching to the ears or shoulders, the forehead fringe brushed back from face to one side, or maybe a wisp or curl left to dangle over the forehead. Style might incorporate a love lock just now coming into fashion. (HEC16C)

--Moustaches never worn alone, always as part of beard (HEC)
--Vandyke beard long and pointed 1560-1640 (HEC16C)
--Pickdevant beard short and pointed usually with brushed up moustache 1570-1600. (HEC16C)
--Forked beard short and pointed or squared 1560-1600 (HEC16C)
--Spade beard cut square and spreading 1570-1605. Also known when worn long as the Cathedral beard (favored by clerics). P. 142 (HEC16C)
--Marquisetto beard cut close to the chin 1570 more visible at chin pointed there. p143(HEC16C)
--Long and square “Cadiz beard,” a short-lived fashion following Earl of Essex’s victory in Cadiz. 1580s. Remained popular only with old men. (HEC16C)
--Wispy beard or tuft under the lower lip. 1580s-1600. p143(HEC16C)
--Whiskers began to be shaved off in the 1590s. Young men sometimes clean shaven but was the exception. p 143(HEC16C)
--Patches of beard sometimes worn by dandies from 1590. P. 143. (HEC16C)
--1555-65 beard sometimes decorated with hanging string or yarn. 

--Flat cap 1535-1570. Beret-shaped crown with narrow brim. Often ostrich tip drooped over one edge, jewel or medallion place over one temple or crown or brim. Balanced on head, often worn with sideways tilt. After 1570 it was chiefly worn by working class and became known as city flat-cap. P. 133 (HEC16C)
--Small bonnet with raised tam-like crown pleated into a brim about equal width to spread of the crown 1565-1600. Worn tilted, sometimes perched. (HEC16C)
--Bonnet with a very tall bag like crown, stiffened with buckram and pleated into a narrow brim, feather optional but when present often set upright in front 1580-95. Worn somewhat perched. De vere Welbeck portrait good example. P. 135(HEC16C)
--Court bonnet small with a crown gathered into a headband or rolled brim w/ twist of pearls or spangles, small plume, and/or jeweled ornament up front. Worn backward tilt at court functions p. 135. (HEC16C)
--Hats (not caps) styles too numerous after 1575 to list. (HEC16C, 135)
Not sure who this goofy looking jack is from the Royal Collection. I came upon this jpeg in my computer and it gave me a laugh. Closed linen collar edged with reticilla looks decapitatingly late 1570's-ish. Peascod bulge to armor indicates post 1575. Hair and moustache being brushed upward by using gum started in 1570.

Key telltales: tall standing collars trimmed with small ruffs still attached to shirt (often frilled with blackwork embroidery). Pickadil tabs common at end of collars, sleeves, and skirts. Ropes of chains worn on doublets (men and women). No swelling or “peascod” bulge to lower doublet yet. Wrist ruffs only, no cuffs until mid-1580s. Short hair still in style. Small neck ruffs or falling band collars. Kettledrum  or onion-shaped trunk hose (heavily padded). Codpiece still prominent.  
General description for decade: Before Elizabeth I, men’s dress restrained and dignified, rich dark colors set off at neck and wrists by white frills, with gold embroidery, slashing, and profuse use of aglets. Clothes followed line of body except for trunk hose. (Ashelford, DIAE)

Above: Never trust inscriptions. Dating by costumes proves that, in spite of its giant inscription, this is not a portrait of Edward de Vere (born 1550) and is very likely his father John de Vere (known as Earl John) the 16th Earl of Oxford. Beard forked and decorated with strings or yarn. Tall standing collar on doublet (slashed) ending in pickadil tabs that support the small figure-of-eight-ruff attached to shirt and garnished with blackwork (tubular sets of ruff folds visible on sitter's left side). Small shoulder wings with pickadil fringe and padded bishop-style sleeves. Doublet either slashed-and-puffed with embroidered shirt linen pulled through slash or perhaps doublet is displayed open-pocketed to reveal embroidered lining--very unique. Blackwork (silk embroidery) evident on wrist ruffles. Short hair. Dope boar pendant (family crest) hanging by ribbon. Painted by unknown artist c. 1565 (Portrait formerly owned by the Duke of St. Albans, currently in the possession of the Minos Miller Trust Fund.)

Men's Fashion Notes: 1558-1569: 
--In the 1560s the small ruff (attached to shirt until mid-80s as were wrist ruffs) usually worn open in front and the tasseled ties or bandstrings which unite it. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--1553-early 70's a prominent feature of the doublet was the standing collar which during this period peaked almost to the ears and was often topped with pickadils (stiffened tabs joined and turned out at right angles). (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Hair close cropped all over. 1545-1600 but more general from 1560-1570. (HEC16C)
--Blackwork (silk embroidery) evident along top of both neck and wrist ruffs. This style will remain in fashion until the early 1570s.
--Thick rope of linked chains remained a popular accessory for men throughout the 1560’s. True for women as well. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--1567 description: “a doublet that has a curved shape, high standing collar and narrow pickadil hem.” P. 57 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Shoulder wings flat welt, broad over shoulder, narrowing to armpit with scalloped or tabbed border, sometimes double 1550-70. P. 93 (HEC16C)
--Beard sometimes forked with string or yarn danging from peak (examples in the very top portrait and also the below one).
--Wings a series of flat looped tabs, double row being usual 1565-1590 p. 93(HEC16C)
--1565 description: “high standing collar with open ruff and band strings showing. Short skirt flared over very distended trunk hose. Doublet sleeves tabbed in pickadils." P. 98 (HEC16C)
--Until the 1570s the most fashionable style trunk hose was called the Spanish kettledrum, which reached to midthigh and was distinguished by round onion-like shape achieved by stuffing. P. 47 After kettledrum hose, more sloping outwards from small waist to maximum swelling below and then turned directly on to the thigh. P. 49 (Ashelford, DIAE).
--Note: “hose” refers not only to stockings but to upper garment (often stuffed with bombast) at waist.
Telltales: most marked difference is the pronounced peascod shape and narrow skirt of the doublet, the fuller, more swollen style of trunk hose, and the deeper, closed ruff. P. 57 (Ashelford, DIAE) 
General description: --1570’s used lighter, brighter colors, variety of cut with doublet and skirt, and more marked use of braids, pinking, embroidery, with neck ruffs getting steadily larger--two of the largest example of these late 70's ruffs are seen directly below. (Ashelford, DIAE) 
Above: Called Sir Philip Sidney (left) and Lord Russell of Thornhaugh (right) from Shakespeare Matters. These are two examples of English ruffs at their largest during the late 1570's. The 80's will see the arrival of the even wider French cartwheel ruff. Starched linen ruffs are now supported by rabato wire system or underpropper designed to tilt the ruff forward and frame the face.

Notes for 1570's:
--Start of the peascod doublet: about 1575 the point of the doublet padded to such an extent it overhung the girdle resulting in the peascod. Padding called bombast made from horsehair, flocks, rags, cotton. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Peascod belly. Originally Dutch. from pea pod, it created apex that pointed to where codpiece used to protrude. Came into fashion c. 1575 and lasted almost 20 years to 1595. Perfect for men with portly statue. P. 37 (Downing, FTWS)
--Jerkin worn over doublet, sleeved or not. Jerkin not worn open, fastened down center, embroidered, slashed.
--Buff jerkin popular made from ox hide dressed with oil, inexpensive, went out of fashion mid-1570s, was a military garment adopted for civilian use. P 47 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Leather jerkin or buff jerkin 1545-75. Body cut in narrow panes from chest to waist. Skirt short, occasionally double, usually scalloped or tabbed. Shoulders often padded. Standing collars and yoke were plain or pinked. Sleeves very short and straight. P. 99(HEC16C)
--1577: Forbisher portrait (buff jerkin) by Ketel reveals method of fastening the hose to the doublet. Voluminous venetians hose with looped border in pickadil at knees, jerkin, skirt, and wings. His jerkin is tied by points but is open lower down, disclosing the doublet beneath. Venetians closed usually beneath the knees often with pickadils frill. P, 58 (Ashelford, DIAE)
Above: Martin Frobisher 1577 by C. Ketel (Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.) Buff (leather) jerkin is military outfit adapted for polite society. Tall raised collar still in style, ruff getting larger sets. Still wearing wrist ruffs (until mid1580's). Upper sleeve now padded leg-of-mutton style that narrows towards wrist. Skirt ends in looped pickadils, as do breeches and shoulder wings (even shoes are tabbed). New-fangled loose fitting breeches were called Venetians, or slops, and fell to the knee, where stockings were gartered to them. Jerkin open at belly to display doublet. Hair still cut short. Dope fish-shaped gat.

--Venetians were large and full hose that reached beneath the knee to gartering place. Early forms evident in the 1570s fitted snuggly to thigh and worn with stockings pulled over them. Most popular in the 1580s-90s when at their fullest and most pear-shaped p. 38(Downing, FTWS) 
--Venetians. Hose. Voluminous with looped border in pickadils at knee. Forbisher 1577 illustration in which doublet also has looped pickadil border. P. 123(HEC16C) 
--Codpiece became less tumescent after 1570s nestling inside the trunk hose. Still used for storage of purse or handkerchief. Finally went out of style in the 1590s. p. 45(Downing, FTWS)
--Men’s girdle (waistline belt) worn at most natural level in 1560-70 almost always supported a sheath for a sword or dagger or both. Dagger often worn behind back on right side. (Downing, FTWS) 
--Standing collar began to subside slightly after 1570 (HEC16C)
--1575-85 doublet skirt became short, a mere border p. 91(HEC16C)
--Trunk sleeves: wide above, narrowing to wrist (called cannon or leg o mutton style) usually pinked or slashed for decoration. Often worn with sham sleeves after 1575 p. 91(HEC16C)
--Bishop-style sleeves full to closed wristband sometimes without wings 1575-1600. Padding evident in forearms and toward wrists. p. 91(HEC16C)
--Shoulder wings flat welt, broad over shoulder, narrowing to armpit with scalloped or tabbed border, sometimes double 1550-70. P. 93(HEC16C)
--Wings a series of flat looped tabs, double row being usual 1565-1590 p. 93(HEC16C)

Above: Sir Philip Sidney c. 1578 (National Portrait Gallery, London). Note pronounced bulge to doublet belly. (Peascod doublet stayed in style from c.1575-1596). Metal gorget around neck is a military garment adaped to polite society. Codpiece still prominent. Wrist ruggles indicate pre 1583 (when cuffs came into fashion). Jerkin slashed and pinked with minimal wings and tight fitting sleeves (minimal padding). Tall standing collar, about to go out of style, topped with figure-of-eight ruff. Hair is short all around. Hose paneled and heavily bombasted in onion shape. Sword belt guarded in gold as is gorget.

General: Ostentatious. Everything changes: male dressed assumed its most extreme and artificial shape. Ruff encircled head and isolates it, a padded doublet (Peascod) curved into a point below waist, trunk hose minimal (like a mini skirt at times), thighs encase in tightly fitting canions (attached below to stockings). Demanded well-proportioned figure with long shapely legs. Strong emphasis on elongated tapering waist. Wide circular ruff and swollen hips and arms common to both sexes, all in all a less aggressively masculine style. (Ashelford, DIAE) p. 43

Above: called Martin Forbisher c. 1590 by H. Custodis, Dulwich Picture Gallery London. (Source photo Note that cuffs have replaced wrist ruffs (indicating post 1583). Large buttons now prominent. Collar full blown cartwheel titled forward with figure-of-eight sets trimmed with reticella. Short black Spanish cloak or cape, now a staple of fashion, hung over both shoulders. Hair getting longer now. Thin gold chains circling buttons to a point that helps the waist appear narrow (as greatly desired).

Notes on 1580s:
--Shirt becomes more visible, not only wrists and standing collar visible
--Collar did not become a separate article until the mid-1580s. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--By the 1580’s the full rounded trunk hose had shrunk to a mere pad round the hips worn with canions. Canions were close fitting tubular extensions from the trunk hose to the knee. P. 49 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--A ruff placed above the falling band was sometimes worn after the 1580s until 1615. P. 110(HEC16C)
--1580s preference for cloaks with definite patterns of vertical or diagonal stripes of gold braid against a dark background. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--By 1587 large ornamental buttons on doublet are fashionable. P. 65 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--1588 four transparent lawn collars on top of each other popular. Raleigh. P. 67 (Ashelford, DIAE) 
--Saucy micro mini bum roll at the hips originated in French court became popular in England in 1580s. (Downing, FTWS)
--French cloak reached knee and later even ankle-length during the 1580s. Often decorated with bugle beads or pearls or guarded with bands of velvet or lace. P. 43(Downing, FTWS)
--Wrist ruffs/ruffles disappear after c. 1583, replaced by cuffs forever. Very helpful hint!
--The Mandilion, pure Elizabethan eccentricity, originally a military garment, came into fashion around 1577 and reached top popularity during 1580s. A cross between a jacket and a cloak, it was hip-length and loose with side seams left open and sleeves hanging. It had a small standing collar and was fasted at throat to chest to allow it to be put on over the head and then whipped around 90 degrees so that the front and back panels swept the shoulders and the sleeves hung deflated front and back. P. 43(Downing, FTWS)
--Rebato support became fashionable from 1580 to 1635. Rebato originally term for a collar similar to a fan ruff, but after 1600 it became exclusive to the support system made of wire. The collar being supported was often trimmed with lace-like reticella and very ornate, could be worn in several layers. (Downing, FTWS)
--Folding fan appeared around 1580 and was regarded as quite a status symbol, and was often ridiculed as such. p. 57 (Downing, FTWS) 
--1575-85 doublet skirt became short, a mere border p. 91(HEC16C)
--Standing collar continues to subside.
--In 1580.s the short French cloak replaced by the long French cloak that reached to the knees or ankles but was still thrown over the left shoulder. P.50 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Wings often a series of flat looped tabs, double row being usual 1565-1590 p. 93(HEC16C)
--Detached trunk (leg-o-mutton) and bishop sleeves (padded shoulder to wrist) still popular.

Above: Young Man Among Roses, possibly the 2nd Earl of Essex Robert Deverux, by Nicholas Hilliard between 1585-95 (Victoria & Albert Museum London). Note how jerkin, with large buttons, follows pronounced Peascod curve of the underlying doublet. Hose now mini bum roll that highlights legs in mini-skirt effect with silk stockings below. Fluted linen cartwheel ruff at neck. Sitting wearing cuffs not wrist ruffles indicating post. 1583. French cloak thrown over left shoulder with sleeves hanging as was fashionable. Short doublet skirt. Hair curley all over, a good example of the Armada perm. Melancholy pose now in style.

Above: this Unknown Man by Hilliard 1588 (Victoria & Albert Museum) is wearing an early example of Italian cutwork on his cuffs and fall collar. He is also sporting the Armada perm hyper popular from 1585-88. Harvard's Leslie Hotson once wrote an entire book arguing this sitter was William Shakespeare.

General: the men’s look becomes more relaxed and romantic, doublet looser and worn undone at times in melancholy disarray, a soft lawn falling collar starts replacing the ruff, hair worn longer in curls, skirts get longer, ruff flattened at times and multi-layered. Italian cutwork collars become popular. Gloves now have gauntlets (wrist coverings). P. 43-4 (Ashelford, DIAE)
Above: Sir John Ashburnham 1593 by H. Custodis (Berger Collection, Denver). Note cuffs have replaced wrist ruffs. Doublet is ultra peascod (maximum bulge) and will start to get smaller in this decade. Slashed jerkin with bishop sleeves padded from shoulder to wrist. Mini bum roll, paneled, with traces of canions visible below them. Skirt still small. Sword hangers not embroidered, only guarded in red. Neck ruff is flattened figure-of-eight style. Rare example of moustache without beard.
Notes on 1590's: 
--Gloves made with gauntlets (part of glove covering the wrist) only after about 1590. Gauntlet section was decorated with embroidery and trimmed with braid and fringing. P. 51 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Love lock 1590-1650 tress of hair grown long usually curled brought forward from nape of the neck to fall gracefully over the chest. p. 142(HEC16C)
--During 1590s skirts of doublet more evident again. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--early 1590s peascod doublet had reached absurd proportions, belly so exaggerated that it has curved back upon itself. Hose even briefer. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--1598 Raleigh portrait unlike portrait ten years earlier doublet is no longer distended by stuffing and is far less exaggerated in shape. Peascod fashion dying out. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Peascod doublet goes out of style c. 1598. Raleigh and essex Cadiz portraits still demonstrates peascod as late as 1596. P.70 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--In the later years of Elizabeth, white was worn universally at court. P. 102 (Ashelford, DIAE) 
--Codpiece, much reduced, finally out of style in the 1590s. p. 45(Downing, FTWS)
--The ruff known as the “three steps and a half to the gallows” a three piled ruff c. 1590 and later. Also flattened figure of eight. P. 49 (Downing, FTWS)
--Dyed beards? Earl of Essex portrait Gheeraerts 1596 “His square cut bead is dyed a startling red in emulation of the Queen’s auburn hair.” P. 61 (Downing, FTWS) 
--Round waist end of doublets were uncommon, usual betw 1590-1610 p.88(HEC16C)
--Narrow neck band or plan round neck with small V opening in front becomes fashionable (1590-1600). p 90 (HEC16C)
--Jerkin’s standing collar subsiding toward 90s. Jerkin collar narrow band or none at all or one turned down flat on shoulders 1590-1620 p. 94(HEC16C)
--Boots became long and close fitting with lace trimmed boot hose tops appearing c. 1595 p. 124 (HEC16C)
Above: Sir Thomas Drake 1585-93 by H. Custodis. (Weiss Gallery. Buckland Abbey, Yelverton. Photo source wikicommons.) Good example of pinking (decorated with small perforations). Fall or falling collar of linen done in two layers the top one transparent. Cuffs at wrists. Skirt a bit longer. Minimum wings with attached bishop style sleeves with pocket. Peascod bulge still pronounced. Hair worn longer.
Above: once celebrated as depicting Shakespeare, this portrait from the Royal Collection remains controversial due to its costume dating. It's peascod doublet, exposed by an open jerkin, dates the costume to no later than 1596 (when the peascod style disappeared). The breeches would also indicate it's an Elizabethan portrait. The tight-fitting sleeves befit the late 1590's or turn of the century. What's curious is that the linen fall collar trimmed in reticella has been used to date the portrait to c. 1620-25 even though Scientific American Magazine once reported that x-rays had revealed an Elizabethan collar hidden beneath the overpainted one we now see. The Royal Collection dismisses this as Shakespeare painted from life due to the collar style.

 Above: Gilbert Talbot 7th Earl of Shrewsbury can be dated to the 1590's by the gauntleted gloves and the flattened figure-of-eight collar in multiple layers. Bum roll, short skirt, and embroidered sword belt all point to 1590's, but the smallish bulge of the peascod doublet indicates the portrait was painted near the end of the peascod's run in 1596. (Portrait painted by William Segar, image scanned by Weiss Gallery, source is Wikipedia.)

Early 1600s: 
--Jerkin collar narrow band or none at all or one turned down flat on shoulders 1590-1620 p. 94(HEC16C)
--1603 portrait p. 72 shows breeches to knee. No peascod. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Falling linen collar remains popular sometimes layered.
--Rich embroidered sword belt and ganger is typical of 1600 period. P. 73 (Ashelford, DIAE) 
--Cobbe portrait of Shakespeare is “whisk style rebato” supported collar. Known in Spain as golilla. Became fashion choice at turn of century with a pristine semicircle of lawn framing the head behind. Highlighted by rich edging of cutwork or Vandyked lace. P. 5 (Downing, FTWS) 
--Round waist at end of doublet uncommon until 1590, usual between 1590-1610 p.88(HEC16C)
--Hooks and eyes used by nobility originally but by end of century were associated with working class p. 90(HEC16C)
--Onset of shield-shaped rebato supported linen collar made famous by Shakespeare’s Droeshout engraving in First Folio.

General Rules and Telltales for Elizabethan Fashion:
--From France: long cloak, cartwheel ruff, peascod doublet, brief trunk hose, pantofles, curled hair, and a variety of effeminate accessories blended with other ideas from Low Countries into a unique style. P.44 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Shirt: straight linen, usually embroidered round the neck and opening, standing collar and sleeve hand. Until 80’s only visible areas of shirt were standing collar and wrist ruffle unless worn with a slash doublet and pulled through. Embroidered shirts very expensive. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--A neck band was a collar of Holland cloth, lawn, or cambric worn about the neck of a shirt. The ruff developed from a frill edging at top of the standing collar of shirt. Increased in size until it became separate article that could be starched and goffered. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--The falling band, or fall, was a collar which rose from the upper edge of the shirt neckband and was worn over the collar of the doublet, but it did not become a separate article until the mid-1580s when it was left open at the throat. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--All the methods of cutting the surface of the doublet were intended to show the colors of the lining to create contrast and meaning. Called slashing and pinking. (Not clear to me the difference between the two.) (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Fastening could be buttons, hooks and eye, or ties down the center. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Jerkin was worn over doublet, sleeved or not. Not worn open, fastened down center, embroidered. P 47 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Waistcoat. Padded garment worn under the doublet for warmth or worn as an informal top garment. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Hose. Variety of style often satirized. Two parts upper or trunk hose, also known as breeches. And lower or nether hose, which could either be canions (from 1580’s onward) or stockings. P. 47 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Breeches were an alternative form of hose and were fuller and longer. They were available in three basic styles: venetians, galligaskins, and open.  Galligaskins were long and wide, reaching down to the knees. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Slops or slop hosen were all baggy breeches closed at the knee. P. 49 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Cloak. Most prized item for dandy. Raleigh threw his over puddle. How worn depended on national style. Spanish was hooded, very full, and short. Dutch was hoodless, heavily guarded and worn with wide sleeves hanging loose. The French was generally worn over left shoulder and fastened under the arm (difficult to keep on).
--Gowns ankle length worn by academics, men of legal profession doctors, civic and crown officers, and ceremonial occasions. Gowns of working men restricted to calf length unless over 60 years old. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Hatbands distinctive, highly decorated. Ostrich, osprey, or heron feathers. Brimmed hat with shade popular with melancholy humor. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Revers is the upper part of garment that folds back to resemble collar. Made with same fabric as rest of garment. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Suit: jerkin with matching doublet, hose, and cloak. P. 53 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Phrase: “Resting on the pickadil border of his doublet collar” p. 53 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Codpiece, big during Henry VIII, once the visible expression of man virility, decline and gradually disappeared around 1577 from male dress under Liz. P. 57 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Metal neck gorget worn over the doublet with military men who were allowed to wear it with civilian dress. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Two of most reviled male fashions that originated in France were the use of feather fans and make-up. P. 68 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Usual for military to wear a scarf draped across the body tied under the arm. P. 73 (also gorget) a lieutenant’s scarf. Military men also wore gorget. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--the “Pawn” a shopping area south side of the Royal Exchange where posh items old, a hive of specialist. Mercers of fashion. Budge Row known for furriers, Silver Street with wigmakers, Cheapside had goldsmiths’ row etc p. 74 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Fashion dolls circulated in England to pass on fashion trends (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Embroidered and spangled nightcaps were worn indoors with nightgown. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Falling bands could be bought either detached from shirt or attached. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Gowns could be lined with lynx (expensive) or Spanish fox (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Cutwork lace collars were of Italian origin. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Elevation in status celebrated by new clothes and portrait (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Phrase “Straunge Fantastic Habit” used to describe outlandish clothing P. 122(Ashelford, DIAE)
--Chest armor worn for normal military purposes or on festive occasions, usually echoed the lines of the doublet.” P. 137 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Phrase: “open lace ruff worn with transparent gauze ruching.” (Ashelford, DIAE) 
--Doublet sleeves were separate, often contrasting colors, attached by points with ribbons or narrow cords or aiglets p. 36 (Downing, FTWS)
--French slops or gally hose or galligaskins hose that sagged to a couple of inches above the knee. Venetians extended to just below the knee. 37(Downing, FTWS)
--After mid-16th century term HOSE began to refer only to upper breeches. (Downing, FTWS)
--Hose were slashed to allow soft lining material to be pulled through in puffs p. 38 (Downing, FTWS)
--Venetians were large and full hose that reached beneath the knee to gartering place. Early forms evident in the 1570s fitted snuggly to thigh and worn with stockings pulled over them. Most popular in the 1580s-90s when at their fullest and most pear-shaped p. 38(Downing, FTWS)
--Everything was upholstered except the leg, considered man’s finest feature. P. 39 (Downing, FTWS)
--Canions were the tubular extension that joined from the puff of the trunk hose at upper thigh to the knee stockings (gartered at knee). P. 40 (Downing, FTWS)
--Bad form for a man to appear in public without a cloak or gown over his doublet p. 41 (Downing, FTWS)
--Full length gown for weather known as a nightgown 41(Downing, FTWS)
--Cloak most glamorous and most expensive item. Spanish was short but full and had ornamental hood. Dutch had wide sleeves which were left hanging loose. The French was the most dashing. (Downing, FTWS)
--Starch revolution. Starch arrived from Holland in 1560 started a revolution for the ruff akin to alchemy, each flute set with a poking stick. Originally made of wood or bone, stick was poked into each fold and smoothed to create a set of perfect loops. In 1573 poking sticks became metal and more effective which led to more elaborate wrist ruffs. P. 48 (Downing, FTWS)
--ruffs once prepared kept in band box, sometimes taken to parties in box and put on upon arrival. P. 49 (Downing, FTWS)
--Anne Turner, a court dressmaker worked with Indigo Jones on masque designs holder of patent for saffron starch. Helped murder Overbury. Revealed at her trial in 1616 that she had used French fashion dolls to represent the people who were subject of her spells. Voodoo dolls! Her executioner wore the saffron ruff and cuffs she’d made fashionable, which ended that fashion for saffron ruffs. P. 51(Downing, FTWS)
--Tints used to dye ruffs vegetable dye applied at starch stage to produce pin, mauve, or yellow shades. Blue ruffs became associated with prostitutes and were banned in 1595. But remained popular because blue made the skin appear more white. (Downing, FTWS)
--Hats worn most of the time including while dining and at home p. 55(Downing, FTWS) 
--small waist strong feature of this time, effect increased by bombast p. 87(HEC16C)
--both trunk sleeves and bishop style were known as “farthingale” sleeves p. 91(HEC16C)
--doublets had detachable, interchangeable sleeves but were never worn w/o sleeves in polite society p. 93(HEC16C)
--“Hand sleeve” term for wrist portion of sleeve and were not a separate item p. 93(HEC16C)

--Jerkin lined but not usually padded or busked worn over doublet followed shape of doublet p. 94(HEC16C)
--Jerkin with standing collar 1540-90 collar maximum height in the 1560’s subsiding toward 90s. p. 94(HEC16C)
--Cloak height of fashion 1545-1600 one for morning one for afternoon one for evening p. 103. Sometimes cloaks were hard to distinguish from short gowns (HEC16C)
--Spanish cloak or cape might be worn over both shoulders p. 106(HEC16C)
--French cloak, worn over left shoulder, generally long to below knee even to ankle p. 106(HEC16C)
--Dutch cloak was full, short, often waist length, wide sleeves, was always lavishly guarded. (HEC16C)
--the Tippet. A short shoulder cape worn with a cloak or gown. Sarcenet tippets common in the 1550s. p. 107(HEC16C)
--Mandilion (1577-1620) open on side, worn sideways often, was originally a military garment, a loose hip-length jacket with standing collar, side seams open, handing sleeves, worn awry, sideways in “Colly Weston” style (“wrong”). P. 109(HEC16C)
--Neck falling band or the fall. Always in fashion. Turned down over the standing collar of the doublet. Attached to shirt. At first small but gradually increased in depth and became flatter and spreading as the doublet collar diminished in height after 1570s. Post 1585 was often left open at throat and became a separate article. Usually linen. Embroidered in colored silk, metal thread, or blackwork common between 1540-70s. Elaborate lace borders from 1570’s on. A ruff placed above the falling band was sometimes worn after the 1580s until 1615. P. 110(HEC16C)
--Phrase: “lace ruff with flattened figure of eight set” 1598(HEC16C)
--Tubular pleats of ruffs were called sets p. 112(HEC16C)
--Starch colored red, blue purple, green or yellow, but white, and more rarely yellow, far more prevalent in England p. 113(HEC16C)
--Arrangements of sets: vertical figure of eight one layer 1560-1620. Flattened or horizontal figure of eight, often in several layers 1590-1620. Arranged in massed convolutions in several layers 1590s- 1605. P. 113(HEC16C)