Thursday, December 23, 2021

Blog Back Open for Business

Update: Well we've had yet another covid delay on the publishing my memoir Stalking Shakespeare with Scribner. Basically the delay is due to the book having so many color plates and in text- illustrations. The new pub date for the memoir is April 2023. 

I've removed most of my blog posts from the last two decades. My plan is to revise and republish them soon.




Wednesday, October 7, 2020

Taking a break until publication of memoir STALKING SHAKESPEARE in April 2022

I am taking a break from blogging until July when my memoir STALKING SHAKESPEARE: My Search for the Poet Beneath the Paint will be published by Scribner Books. Over 100 posts have been removed from this blog for now but will reappear in updated form once I'm back to blogging. See you soon, I hope. Lee

PS: the French translation of my recent novel The Last Taxi Driver just made the front page of Le Monde's weekly book review this week. Sure didn't see that coming.


Tuesday, March 17, 2020

My New Novel THE LAST TAXI DRIVER Featured in Harper's Magazine April 2020 Issue

Very happy to report that Harper's magazine just (re)published the first chapter of my brand new novel THE LAST TAXI DRIVER (Tin House Books) in their April issue. Which is kinda funny because a lifetime ago I got a story published from their slush pile and made the front cover. I think that was around 1995. Or maybe it was 1895. Either way, worlds ago.

For anyone interested here is link to the chapter Harper's was kind enough to republish. Many thanks to Tin House Books and ICM for pulling off this coup.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020


Clockwise from upper right: French, American, UK, American (paper), and Italian editions.


“A wild, funny, poetic fever-dream that will change the way you think about America. Durkee is a true original—a wise and wildly talented writer who knows something profound about that special strain of American darkness that comes out of blended paucity, materialism, and addiction—but also, in the joy and honesty and wit of the prose, he offers a way out. I loved this
book and felt jangled and inspired and changed by it.” — George Saunders

Disarmingly honest and darkly comic . . . beguiling, energetic, razor sharp prose. –New York Times Book Review

One of the best novels in recent memory . . . wildly compelling . . . . a comic masterpiece.–James McElroy The Washington Examiner

Popping pills and fulminating about the dregs of society, yet incapable of not feeling compassion for the plight of his fellow bottom-feeders, Lou Bishoff represents a masterclass in characterization, a man who recalls elements of Jim Thompson, Flannery O’Connor, Barry Gifford and John Kennedy Toole.–Declan Burke The Irish Times

A remarkable one-day picaresque as we follow Lou on a marathon shift through a blasted landscape that’s part Denis Johnson–ish carnival of the wrecked, part Nietzschean Twilight of the Gods (or Twilight of the Taxicabs) . . . a comic sweetness and energy underneath that reminds one of Charles Portis . . . A dark pleasure.  Kirkus (starred review)

Wickly funny . . . There is depression, dirt, grit, and grist aplenty, but the novel shyly displays a bruised beauty. –Jesse Davis, Memphis Flyer

The funniest writer you’ve never heard of, but that may change. His 2001 debut, Rides of the Midway, is a 1970s coming of age masterpiece . . . Now, nearly 20 years later, at last we have Durkee’s second book, his own reboot, and wow is it worth the wait . . . a future Tom Waits vehicle if there ever was one. John Freeman, Lit Hub Executive Editor

Blotted with jet-black humor, The Last Taxi Driver (Tin House) is the lauded authors first novel in twenty years. This ride is worth the wait. CJ Lotz, Garden & Gun Executive Editor

Delightful and surprising . . . [a] cathartic achievement. . . . Told from Lou’s perspective, it’s a casual, voice-driven read with smart intimate humor. Sarah Webster, Chicago Review of Books

Lou Bishoff is a hero for the gig economy . . . dark but funny as hell. —Southwest Review

The potential for violence lurks on every page and erupts in assaults sadly mundane and shockingly horrific . . . In Lou, Durkee has created a fascinatingly complex character . . . Durkee tackles race and poverty, violence of many varieties, loss and longing, and the power of the imagination. Lou’s excruciating day will make readers cringe, and the recounting of his traumas is more than unsettling. This is a dark, feverish and weird tale that remains compelling throughout. –Sarah Rachel Egelman, Bookreporter

THE LAST TAXI DRIVER is a Canterbury Tales for our time . . . Decentralized, atomized, and alternately tranquilized and jacked up on cheap beer and meth, this is the world of Beckett, Godard, Robbe-Grillet . . . The Last Taxi Driver the novel is about exhaustion. Towards the end of the book, Lou wonders vaguely “if aging boxers ever reach a point in the late rounds of lost bouts in which they enjoy being hit.” When Lou says things like that, which he does increasingly, you realize he speaks for all of us the same way the singer of a blues song does.” –David Kirby, Full Stop

A step above a must-read.  –The Week

For devotees of the offbeat and grit lit writers like Larry Brown and Mary Miller. Follow the air freshener rocking back and forth, taking you under its spell, as Durkee takes you for a ride. –AV  Club

A pleasure to read . . . unadorned and direct. It’s first person Lou, explaining the North Mississippi taxi business and narrating as we ride shotgun on a long, strange shift. The novel is dark, but quite funny. Lou . . . has stories to tell, stories about albino possums, UFOs, and adolescent trauma. As the day shift turns into a night run home from Memphis, with a yellow-eyed transplant surgery escapee on board and a gun under the seat, things get … well, they get darker.  –Jim Warren, The Clarion Ledger

Lee Durkee’s Gentry is rooted firmly in our America. The novel almost makes other fiction in that Southern tradition seem frivolous by comparison . . .” –Jim Woster, Razorcake

Raunchy and sweet and, at times, psychedelic. John T. Edge writing in Garden & Gun

Lou might sometimes lack a sense of accomplishment, but Durkee’s prose never lacks purpose. Readers therefore will find plenty to appreciate in The Last Taxi Driver. Split Rock Review

Lee Durkee’s novels draw upon his own hip but hardscrabble life, combining the working-class realism of Charles Bukowski with the counter-cultural flamboyance of Hunter S. Thompson . . . Yet somehow, the author creates such a vivid likeness of life that readers can’t help but feel uplifted. There’s beauty in the beastliness. Don’t miss this one. –Luckbox Magazine


Friday, November 8, 2019

My Final Argument that the Portrait of an Unknown Fashion Fantastico in North Carolina Depicts the Privateer Sir Thomas Cavendish

Above: Unknown Gent (NCMA 67.13.4) & Sir Thomas Cavendish (image via
This distinguished-looking gent, decked out in a fabulous gold-leaf fleur-de-lis doublet, lives anonymously inside the North Carolina Museum of Art, where his keepers refer to him affectionately as "Mr. Fancy Pants." To my eye, the sitter bears an uncanny resemblance to a number of confirmed portraits of Sir Thomas Cavendish, the English privateer who claimed to have burned over a hundred Spanish ships. Cavendish, an aristocrat known as "the Navigator," was the third man to ever circumnavigate the globe. I'm convinced the portrait does depict Cavendish, and this post will attempt to present the evidence via an examination of the portrait's provenance, costume, pigments, and also the impresa (or visual riddle) posed by the enigmatic thunderstorms painted in the upper-left-hand corner.
Above: Unknown Man (North Carolina Museum of Art, left) & Sir Thomas Cavendish
 in 1591 by Gheeraerts the Younger (image taken for educational purposes from Ashelford's
 book DRESS IN THE TIME OF ELIZABETH). The painting of Cavendish is owned by the
 Trustees of the Will of the 8th Duke of Berkeley. Note that both men are wearing peascod
 doublets above the bum-rolls trunk hose that came into fashion during the 1580's. 
Above: close-up comparison between unknown gent (MCMA) and Sir Thomas Cavendish 
by Gheeraerts. Click on the image for a higher-resolution comparison.
Let's begin with a blog post provided by the North Carolina Museum of Art stating their theory that this unknown man was likely an Elizabethan privateer. Dr. Perry Hurt, one of the museum's associate conservators, noted that the portrait had been painted using actual gold and silver leaf as well as an expensive red dye called cochineal (derived from the insect of that name found in the Americas). Hunt believed these three materials were used in the portrait to reflect the Spanish booty brought home to England by the unknown privateer in the portrait. So let's begin this argument by stating that Sir Thomas Cavendish was indeed a famous privateer who specialized in plundering the Spanish of gold, silver, and cochineal prior to being lost at sea during his attempt to be the first man to circle the globe twice.

Now let's have a look in the upper-left corner at the portrait's impresa. Elizabethans loved these visual riddles, but this one seems easy to solve.
Above: detail from portrait of an unknown gent kept in the North Carolina Museum of Art.

 The device depicts a series of sinister storm clouds raining onto what appears to be a blue iris with the French motto SANS ORAGE ("without storm") sheltering the flower. I would take the meaning to be something akin to: without hardship you get no Spanish booty. But what's more important is that Cavendish had at least one other portrait of himself painted standing beneath similar storm clouds while garbed garishly in gold.
Above: Unknown Man (North Carolina Museum of Art  NCMA.67.13.4) & "Portrait of
 Sir Thomas Cavendish" by John Bettes (image from Flickr).
Below: detail of thunder storms perched over Cavendish's left shoulder.
More evidence the sitter is Cavendish can be found inside the museum in Raleigh, North Carolina, where the portrait now resides. The museum's collection of British portraits contains 25 pictures total. Yet four of the sitters are confirmed members of the Cavendish family. Interestingly I had no idea this was the case when I first suggested to the museum their sitter was Cavendish. It's quite the coincidence but perhaps nothing more than that, because the family that donated the known Cavendish portraits is not the same family who donated Mr. Fancy Pants. But then again perhaps there is some connection between the two families; it would be nice to know if that were the case.

A portrait of Sir Thomas Cavendish in North Carolina makes perfect sense in that he played a key role in the history of that area. The Fort Raleigh websites recalls Cavendish in this way:
Thomas Cavendish also played an important role in the expeditions know as the Roanoke Voyages. In 1585 he participated with Sir Richard Grenville in planting the Ralph Lane colony by bringing his ship Elizabeth to the area now known as North Carolina.
It seems likely the picture was painted c. 1588 when Cavendish returned to England after circumnavigating the globe. His ship Desire contained incredible wealth in its hold. He was knighted by Elizabeth I, who was so impressed with his booty she accepted his invitation to sup with him on his ship. 

An examination of the costume supports the date of c. 1588. The bombast stuffing of the mid-to-late 1580s can be seen in the sitter's bishop (or farthingale) style sleeves, in his pronounced peascod doublet, and in his upper trunk hose (the style was called a mini bum roll). There are no wings at the shoulder of the doublet, which is also consistent with c. 1588. The sitter is wearing a gorget around his neck, which was a fashionable way to let everyone know you've fought in battles, which Cavendish certainly had. The sitter is also adorned by a sash that was perhaps a favor from Queen Elizabeth (the beautiful sash is painted with real gold and silver). His hair style is consistent with c. 1588 as he is sporting the hyper popular Armada Perm just as it is giving way to the longer rock-star hair styles of the 1590's. However the fall collar of Italian cutwork seems more consistent with the 1590's. Cavendish was lost sea in 1592. His portrait by Gheeraerts the Younger was painted in 1591.

We don't know who painted the North Carolina portrait, although its hard not to suspect Gheeraerts the Younger. However the use of real gold and silver as pigments might indicate a portrait painted by Nicholas Hilliard, who was known to employ those precious metals in that way. Although Hilliard is famous for his portrait miniatures, he also painted some in-large portraits. Take all that with a grain of salt, as it is pure speculation.

The portrait of the unknown man was donated to the museum in 1967 by Mr. and Mrs. James MacLamroc, who also donated at least two other excellent portraits to the museum. One of these portraits appears, to my eye, to depict the privateer Sir Frances Drake. It's hard not to suspect a nautical theme inside the MacLamroc collection. These portraits had unfortunately been misidentified centuries earlier. The museum acknowledges the current inscription on them are incorrect. 

It's also worth mentioning that the Cavendish clan came to England from Normandy, or at least believed they did, so the French motto and embroidered fleur-de-lis might well reflect that heritage.
Below: comparison of left hands from the same two portraits. The hand on the right is the
 unknown man's. The confirm Cavendish portrait (right) is owned by the Trustees of the Will
 of the 8th Duke of Berkeley
Above: NCMA.67.13.3 Unknown Man (center) surrounded by various portraits of Sir Frances Drake
 taken from Wikimedia.
Below: NCMA.67.13.5 Unknown Man (center) with two portraits of Sir Walter Raleigh from the
National Portrait Gallery in London.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

A Curious Portrait In Which the New Countess of Southampton Poses With a Dog That Is Wearing an Elizabethan Ruff (Ruff) Doggie Collar

Above: Portrait of Elizabeth Vernon Countess of Southampton in Her Boudoir by Unknown Artist c. 1600 (Private collection Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, Scanned from Aileen Ribeiro, image via Wikicommons)
The excellent portrait above, artist unknown, is one of my Elizabethan favorites. Elizabeth Vernon was married to the 3rd Earl of Southampton, Henry Wriothesley, who was equally fond of his own hair (see below). Although it seems likely Henry was bisexual, he and Elizabeth--to judge by their affectionate letters--enjoyed a happy marriage. Elizabeth's portrait appears to have been painted a few years before the failed Essex rebellion which landed her husband Henry in the Tower of London for years (along with his pet cat Trixie). It's likely that the portrait was made to commemorate her marriage to the earl in 1598 (in which case she is already pregnant). They were married behind Elizabeth's back. Henry then fled England and left his new wife to face the queen's wrath over their secret marriage.
In the portrait, Elizabeth is wearing a waistcoat decorated with flowers over a rose-colored corset and showing quite a bit of skin for an Elizabethan women. It looks to me like a detached partlet, which will cover some of that skin, is hanging from her neck ruff on the purple curtain. Her petticoat is embroidered with all sorts of plants and cool insects (insects were in fashion and were even a popular shape for brooches). But the scene is stolen in some ways by the jewelry-box still life and its pin cushion. The details shown there makes me wonder if an established miniaturist such as Hilliard or Oliver might have painted the portrait. 

A video recently popped up on my youtube that made me recall this portrait of Elizabeth Vernon in her boudoir. The video, by a contributor called Priorattire, demonstrated the step-by-step agony of dressing an Elizabethan woman endured every day (see bottom of post).
Above: bling-box detail from unknown artist's portrait of the Countess of Southampton (Private collection Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, image via Wikicommons)
Above: The inscription on the comb reads, "menez moi doucement," which means "handle/lead me gently" (Private collection Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, image via Wikicommons)
Above: stylish doggie wearing ruff collar. (Private collection Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry)
Above: 3rd Earl of Southampton c. 1593 (Cobbe Family Collection; image from wikicommons).

Tuesday, September 3, 2019

20 Essential Questions To Ask When Attempting To Date An Elizabethan Portrait By Costume: Men's Portraits

Horatio de Vere. Gorget on neck indicates military background. Mini-skirt-like bum roll (with only minimal stuffing) and attached canion leggings. Cuffs. Pronounced peascod bulge to doublet (turned inward, a downward hook). Padded Bishop sleeves. Falling linen band collar with open V neck. Jerkin skirt medium. Hair short. (See correct date of portrait at end of post.*) Artist is George Glower (Royal Armouries, Tower of London, image via wikicommons).
Below are 20 question that should help you date any Elizabethan portrait of a male courtier

Two recommended links for further delving:
--The Essential Glossary of Elizabethan Costume
--A More Extensive Guide to Dating Elizabethan Portraits By Costume: the Men

1. Is the sitter wearing a standing collar hugging the neck (up to the ear at times) that supports an open-at-front neck ruff? Maximum collar height to ears was during 1560's, then 70's, kept subsiding, growing outward not upward.

2. Is he wearing cuffs or ruffles at the wrist? Cuffs came into fashion .c 1583. Ruffles all but disappeared within a few years.
Above: detail Robert Dudley by van der Muelin (Yale Center for British Arts). Standing collar peaks at ear, pickadil tabs at all hems of doublet with double row at wings, wrist ruffles, non peascod doublet with no stuffing at sleeves, small figure-of-eight neck ruff open at neck. Date revealed at bottom of post.**
3. Is there a peascod bulge to the lower doublet? Peascod style was in fashion from 1575-c. 1596. If bulge is comically pronounced, turned inward like a hook (see top photo) then it's probably early 1590's--aka "peak peascod"--especially if the doublet is paired with very short, puffy upper hose.

4. Is his hair fabulously permed? 1585-88 was the glorious Armada perm. Curled hair remained stylish into 1600's. Hair mostly short in 60's and 70's. Curly and a bit longer in the 80's. Could fall too the ears and shoulders in the 1590's onward. Short hair always remained in style as well.

5. Is he holding or wearing a gauntleted glove, meaning the kind with wide fabulously decorated wrists coverings? Gauntlets came into fashion starting c. 1590. Note: holding a gauntlet in a portrait was a pose of nobility.

6. Does his upper hose (called trunk hose) resemble a stuffed mini skirt? The  mini bum roll (see top photo) short but stuffed wide at hips and often paired with canions (tubular leggings to the knees) popular 1580's until mid 90's. 

7. Are the trunk hose a bit longer to mid-thigh and puffy? Before 1570, this popular onion-shape style of upper hose was called the kettledrum.

8. Is he wearing baggy breeches to lower thigh or knee? These "Venetians" were most popular, and at their most pear-shaped, from the 1580's through the 90's. First introduced in 1570's but at that point hugged the thigh.
Above: Martin Frobisher by Ketel (Bodleian Library). Baggy Venetian hose, picadils at skirt, wing, and collar of doublet. Standing collar with ruff. Leg-of-mutton sleeves (stuff from shoulder to elbow but taping toward wrist). Med-long doublet skirt. Wrist ruffles. See bottom of post for dating ***
9. Is he wearing thin or thick chains across his chest? Thick chains worn like jewelry throughout 1560's for both men and women. Thin chains, often combined into ropes, came into fashion in the 70's and remained popular forever.

10. Is there a pickadil series of tabs hemmed along any garment? These tabs (see Dudley and Frobisher portraits above) were used for support and decoration at the end of the sleeve, collar, or skirt. Often looped, they were very popular in 60's and 70's but not as much in the 80's onward.

11. Are there garishly large buttons on the doublet and/or doublet sleeves? These buttons were popular starting c. 1587 but only for a few years. Not a 90's thing.
Above: closed figure-of-eight ruff with large buttons. Peregrine Bertie by H. Custodis. Image from Weiss Gallery via wikicommons. Date of portrait revealed at bottom of post.****
12. Are the sleeves padded from upper shoulder all the way to wrists? Known as bishop sleeves (see top photo) they came into fashion c. 1575 until 1600. Note how whole doublet looks inflated. Very popular in 80's sometimes without wings on shoulders.

13. Are the sleeves padded only from the upper shoulder to the elbow so that the arms resemble a leg of mutton? (See photo below.) Similar to the bishop sleeves (see Frobisher portrait above) in popularity c. 1570-1600. Like all puff it peaked in the 80's.

14. Is there no padding in the sleeve? No padding was poplar 1550-70's and again in the 1590's onward. During the 90's onward fashion started to dispense with bombast padding in doublet and sleeves, and returned to the natural male form of the 1560's-70's.   

15. Is there a circular linen ruff figure-of-eight collar that encloses the entire neck? If so, it's likely mid to late 1570's to 1590's. French cartwheel atrocity ruff started early 80's. Ketel's portrait of Richard Goodrick contains earliest cartwheel I've found c. 1578.

16. Does that figure-of-eight collar have several layers, sometimes convoluted, and/or a slightly crushed-looking figure-of-eight pattern? Popular 1590 to 1620's. 

17. Is there an Italian cutwork collar shaped like a fan or shield behind the sitter's head and tilted forward by an unseen support system? Italian cutwork first became popular in 1590's. The fan-frame style called a whisk or golilla became fashionable c. 1600.
Above: Sir Thomas Overbury (but you can pretend he's Will Shakespeare if you want!) c. 1610 (Cobbe Family Collection, image via wikicommons). Fan-like Italian cutwork collar known as a "whisk" (rabato support system visible). Doublet and sleeves without padding. Hair short and brushed upward with gum.
18: Is there only a narrow falling band for a collar? Plain neck band, often turned down on shoulders, or round neck with V opening became popular c. 1585-1620, but falling bands are always present in Elizabethan fashion. Often layered with transparent upper one 1590's-1600's.

19. Is the doublet skirt narrow, a mere border? This style was popular between 1575-85.

20. Does he look like an inflated and vainglorious popinjay? 1580's were the decade of bombast stuffing and of the most asinine fashion--most of it imported from France. 90's onward a reaction against 80's back to human form of 60's and 70's with no or little stuffing. 

Final exam:
Above: called Martin Frobisher, explorer, after Custodis. (Dulwich Picture Gallery, image via wikicommons.) Portrait date below *****
Portrait dates:
* portrait of Horatio Vere 1594.
** portrait of Dudley c.
***portrait Frobisher 1577 
**** portrait of Bertie 1588-90.
*****portrait of Frobisher c. 1590.
Sources consulted
--DRESS IN THE ELIZABETHAN AGE (BT Batsford Ltd) by Jane Ashelford

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Essential Glossary for Elizabethan Fashion

Called Sir Thomas Monson. Unknown collection. Photo from Wikicommons.
Other helpful links:

Sources consulted: 
--DRESS IN THE ELIZABETHAN AGE (BT Batsford Ltd) by Jane Ashelford 


Aglets-metal tags used for fastening or trimming, very popular 1550-60s.
Armada perm-close curls all over extremely popular during 1585-88.
Band-(also falling band) linen collar either attached to shirt or not, often in fashion, especially toward end of century.
Bishop sleeves-padded with bombast from shoulder to wrist in style popular with clerics.
Blackwork-black silk embroidery frilled upon top of white linen collars, cuffs etc. Other colors popular too. 1550's-60's.
Bongrace-bill or brim of a bonnet or cap
Cadiz beard-1596 short-lived fashion of long, square beard following the Earl of Essex's victory in Cadiz. Remained popular only with older men.
Canions-tubular close-fitting extensions of the hose from thigh to knee stocking--contrasting pattern, often metallic in appearance, highlighted men's gams
Caul-hairnet of gold thread or silk, lined, decorated
Chemise-smock, lady's undergarment
Codpiece-purse bulge near genitals used for storage, diminished after 1560 and disappeared in 1590s.
Clothes horse-a man who's never been in battle but who dresses with military accessories such as a gorget on his neck or a scarf draped across his chest and tied under the left arm.
Coif-small linen cap tied under chin
Cony-rabbit fur
Cutwork-from Italy needle-lace design filled with geometric figures aka reticella used to fill collars displayed in fan-like fashion.
Damask-rich silk floral or geometric
Doublet-garment often leather worn over the shirt, very popular throughout Elizabeth's time, decorated with panels, slashes, pinking, attaches to sleeves at hemmed wings, often with a peascod bulge (of bombast) to lower stomach. Usually worn under a jerkin (jacket).
Farthingale-understructure to produce either funnel- or bell- shape in women's dresses. 
French cloak-short, slung over left shoulder, got longer, reached knee, then ankle length after 1580. 
Galligaskins-breeches, baggy, to knees.
Gauntlet-the wrist covering section of a glove, almost always ornamented.
Girdle-belt or cord or chain that accentuates waistline.
Gorget-metal military yoke adapted for polite society.
Gull-loud, loudly dressed, over-perfumed, and late-arriving dandies famous for baiting the actors at theaters. 
Gum-used after 1570 to brush hair and mustaches upward.
Guard-bordered with bands of contrasting material.
Hangers-support of sword attached to sword belt.
Hose-garment at hips for men, often bombasted and paneled, could extend as far as knees or end in bum roll for mini-skirt effect. Terms also applied to attached stockings. 
Jerkin-jacket-like garment worn over doublet that conformed to doublets shaped sometimes sleeveless, worn closed down center, embroidered, slashed, pinked.
Kirtle-skirt (see below).
Leg of mutton style sleeves-detachable with padded shoulders to elbow but close to body from elbow to wrist.
Marquisetto beard-cut close to chin but more visible at peak.
Mercer-seller of imported fabrics.
Mini bum roll-short upper hose wide at waist ending above thighs for mini-skirt effect to highlight men's gams, popular 1580's-90's.
Oes-eyelets used to decorate.
Partlet-cloth or accessory that covers upper chest.
Peascod-doublet style with padded belly popular 1575-95.
Pinking-small holes or slits/slashes used for decoration .
Pickadil-tabs sometimes looped used decoratively at borders (mostly before 1590) also used to support small ruffs along collar especially in 1553-70.
Pickdevant beard-short and pointed with brushed up moustaches after 1570.
Popinjay-a man perceived as overly fond of fashion, a dandy.
Puffs-material or lining pulled through slash garment.
Rebato-underpropper support system behind head for tilted ruff or cutwork collars; also a name for those type collars.
Revers-upper part of garment folded back near neck to resemble a collar--same material as rest of garment.
Ruff-starched linen folded in patterned sets used for collars and wrists.
Skirt-bottom end of doublet or jerkin often guarded or decorated with looped pickadils etc. 
Slashing-slits used decoratively.
Slops-baggy French breeches that sagged to knees.
Spanish farthingale-hooped triangle-shaped under support system to woman's skirt, popular in 1550's-1570's.
Spanish kettledrum-most popular men's hose till 1570, onion-shaped, reached to mid-thigh.
Standing collar-prominent feature of doublet until 1570 with collar reaching to ears and topped with pickadils that supported small ruff.
Starch-arrived in England c. early 1570's, revolutionized the linen collar.
Stomacher-stiffened material shaped like an arrow tapering toward center of bodice; it purpose was to makes the waist appear more narrow.
Tippet--short shoulder cape worn with cloak or gown.
Trunk hose-swelled material filled with bombast from the waistband, often onion shaped, later evolved into slops or breeches.
Vandyke beard-long and pointed 1560 onward.
Venetians-slops, full breeches that close at the knee, either baggy of close fitting
Wings-raised shoulders of the doublet where the sleeves are attached, hemmed and decorative to hide attachment points. 
Wrist ruffle-ruff at wrist attached to shirt, replaced by cuffs in 1583

Monday, August 26, 2019

How To Date Elizabethan Portraits By Costume: Men's Portraits

Above: Robert Dudley, the First Earl of Leicester c. 1560 by van der Muelin (Yale Center for British Art). Wrist ruffles, jerkin slashed and pinked vertically with long skirt ending in pickadil border. Jerkin (outer jacket) sleeveless and winged with double layer of pickadil tabs. Tall standing collar also ends with pickadils. Sleeves of doublet are tight to skin without bombast padding. Non-peascod doublet attached down center with buttons top/bottom and hooks in center. Codpiece still prominent. Hose paneled, padded for onion-shape. Small figure-of-eight ruff collar worn open at neck (ruff likely attached to shirt as were wrist ruffles). Hair short all around. Beard forked and decorated with beaded strings or yarn. Black squat cap beret-like pleated with ostrich feather.

Sources used: 
--DRESS IN THE ELIZABETHAN AGE (BT Batsford) by Jane Ashelford (Ashelford, DIAE) 
--FASHION IN THE TIME OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (Shire Books) by Sarah Jane Downing (Downing, FTWS) 

Other Helpful Links:
Essential Glossary for Elizabethan Fashion
20 Essential Questions To Ask When Attempting to Date An Elizabethan Portrait of a Male Courtier 

--Hair close cropped all over 1545-1600 but more general from 1560-1570. (HEC16C)
--1570-1600 hair brushed up stiffly from temples and forehead. Mustache usually brushed upward as well. (Brushed up effect achieved with gum.) Back hair usually short. P141 (HEC16C)
--1580-1650s close curls all over (most pronounced during the Armada perm craze of the late 1580s). (HEC16C)
--1590-1650s longer hair reaching to the ears or even the shoulders, the forehead fringe brushed back from face to one side, or maybe a wisp or curl left to dangle over the forehead. Style might incorporate a love lock just now coming into fashion. (HEC16C)

--Mustaches never worn alone, always as part of beard. (HEC)
--Vandyke beard long and pointed 1560-1640. (HEC16C)
--Pickdevant beard short and pointed usually with brushed up mustache 1570-1600. (HEC16C)
--Forked beard short and pointed or squared 1560-1600. (HEC16C)
--Spade beard cut square and spreading 1570-1605. Was known when worn long as "the Cathedral beard" (favored by clerics). P. 142 (HEC16C)
--Marquisetto beard cut close to the chin 1570 more visible at chin, was pointed there. p143. (HEC16C)
--Long and square “Cadiz beard,” a short-lived fashion following Earl of Essex’s victory in Cadiz. 1580s. Remained popular only with old men. (HEC16C)
--Wispy beard or tuft under the lower lip. 1580s-1600. p143. (HEC16C)
--Whiskers began to be shaved off in the 1590s. Young men sometimes clean shaven but they were the exception. p 143. (HEC16C)
--Patches of beard sometimes worn by dandies from 1590. P. 143. (HEC16C)
--1555-65 beard sometimes decorated with hanging string or yarn. 

--Flat cap 1535-1570. Beret-shaped crown with narrow brim. Often ostrich feather tip drooped over one edge, jewel or medallion place over one temple or crown or brim. Balanced on head, often worn with sideways tilt. After 1570 it was chiefly worn by working class and became known as "city flat-cap." P. 133 (HEC16C)
--Small bonnet with raised tam-like crown pleated into a brim about equal width to spread of crown 1565-1600. Worn tilted, sometimes perched. (HEC16C)
--Bonnet aka sugarloaf with a very tall bag like crown, stiffened with buckram and pleated into a narrow brim, feather optional but when present often set upright in front 1580-95. Worn somewhat perched. De vere Welbeck portrait good example. P. 135(HEC16C)
--Court bonnet small with a crown gathered into a headband or rolled brim w/ twist of pearls or spangles, small plume, and/or jeweled ornament up front. Worn backward tilt at court functions p. 135. (HEC16C)
--Hats (not caps) styles too numerous after 1575 to list. (HEC16C, 135)


Key telltales: tall standing collars trimmed with small ruffs still attached to linen shirt (often frilled with blackwork embroidery). Pickadil tabs common at end of collars, sleeves, and skirts. Ropes of chains worn on doublets (both men and women). No swelling or “peascod” bulge to lower doublet yet. Wrist ruffs only, no cuffs until mid-1580s. Short hair still in style. Small neck ruffs or falling band collars. Kettledrum  or onion-shaped trunk hose (heavily padded). Codpiece still prominent.
General description for decade: Before Elizabeth I, men’s dress restrained and dignified, rich dark colors set off at neck and wrists by white frills, with gold embroidery, slashing, and profuse use of aglets. Clothes followed line of body except for trunk hose. (Ashelford, DIAE)

Above: Never trust inscriptions. Dating by costumes proves that, in spite of its giant inscription, this is not a portrait of Edward de Vere (born 1550) and is likely his father John de Vere (known as Earl John) the 16th Earl of Oxford. Beard forked and decorated with strings or yarn. Tall standing collar on doublet (slashed) ending in pickadil tabs that support the small figure-of-eight-ruff attached to shirt and garnished with blackwork (tubular sets of ruff folds visible on sitter's left side). Small shoulder wings with pickadil fringe and padded bishop-style sleeves. Doublet either slashed-and-puffed with embroidered shirt linen pulled through slash or perhaps doublet is displayed open-pocketed to reveal embroidered lining--very unique. Blackwork (silk embroidery) evident on wrist ruffles. Short hair. Dope boar pendant (family crest) hanging by ribbon. Painted by unknown artist c. 1565 (Portrait formerly owned by the Duke of St. Albans, currently in the possession of the Minos Miller Trust Fund.)

Men's Fashion Notes: 1558-1569: 
--In the 1560s the small ruff (attached to shirt until mid-80s as were wrist ruffs) usually worn open in front and the tasseled ties or bandstrings which unite it. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--1553-early 70's a prominent feature of the doublet was the standing collar which during this period peaked almost to the ears and was often topped with pickadils (stiffened tabs joined and turned out at right angles). (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Hair close cropped all over. 1545-1600 but more general from 1560-1570. (HEC16C)
--Blackwork (silk embroidery) evident along top of both neck and wrist ruffs. This style will remain in fashion until the early 1570s.
--Thick rope of linked chains remained a popular accessory for men throughout the 1560’s. True for women as well. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--1567 description: “a doublet that has a curved shape, high standing collar and narrow pickadil hem.” P. 57 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Shoulder wings flat welt, broad over shoulder, narrowing to armpit with scalloped or tabbed border, sometimes double 1550-70. P. 93 (HEC16C)
--Beard sometimes forked with string or yarn danging from peak.
--Wings a series of flat looped tabs, double row being usual 1565-1590. P. 93(HEC16C)
--1565 description: “high standing collar with open ruff and band strings showing. Short skirt flared over very distended trunk hose. Doublet sleeves tabbed in pickadils." P. 98 (HEC16C)
--Until the 1570s the most fashionable style trunk hose was called the Spanish kettledrum, which reached to mid-thigh and was distinguished by a round onion-like shape achieved by stuffing. P. 47 After kettledrum hose, more sloping outwards from small waist to maximum swelling below and then turned directly on to the thigh. P. 49 (Ashelford, DIAE).
--Note: “hose” refers not only to stockings but to upper garment (often stuffed with bombast) at waist.
Telltales: most marked difference is the pronounced peascod (bulged) shape of lower doublet and also the narrow skirt of the doublet, the fuller, more swollen style of trunk hose, and the deeper, closed ruff. P. 57 (Ashelford, DIAE)
General description: 1570’s used lighter, brighter colors, variety of cut with doublet and skirt, and more marked use of braids, pinking, embroidery, with neck ruffs getting steadily larger--two of the largest example of these late 70's ruffs are seen directly below. (Ashelford, DIAE) 
Above: Called Sir Philip Sidney (left) and Lord Russell of Thornhaugh (right) from Shakespeare Matters. These are two examples of English ruffs at their largest during the late 1570's. The 80's will see the arrival of the even wider French cartwheel ruff. Starched linen ruffs are now supported by rabato wire system (underpropper) designed to tilt the ruff forward and frame the face.

Notes for 1570's:
--Start of the peascod doublet: about 1575 the point of the doublet padded to such an extent it overhung the girdle resulting in the peascod. Padding used was called bombast and made from horsehair, flocks, rags, cotton. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Peascod belly. Originally Dutch. from pea pod, it created apex that pointed to where codpiece used to protrude. Came into fashion c. 1575 and lasted almost 20 years to 1595. Perfect for men with portly statue. P. 37 (Downing, FTWS)
--Jerkin worn over doublet, sleeved or not. Jerkin not worn open, fastened down center, embroidered, slashed.
--Buff jerkin popular made from ox hide dressed with oil, inexpensive, went out of fashion mid-1570s, was a military garment adopted for civilian use. P 47 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Leather jerkin or buff jerkin 1545-75. Body cut in narrow panes from chest to waist. Skirt short, occasionally double, usually scalloped or tabbed. Shoulders often padded. Standing collars and yoke were plain or pinked. Sleeves very short and straight. P. 99 (HEC16C)
--1577: Forbisher portrait (buff jerkin) by Ketel reveals method of fastening the hose to the doublet. Voluminous Venetian hose with looped border in pickadil at knees, jerkin, skirt, and wings. His jerkin is tied by points but is open lower down, disclosing the doublet beneath. Venetians closed usually beneath the knees often with pickadils frill. P. 58 (Ashelford, DIAE)
Above: Martin Frobisher 1577 by C. Ketel (Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.) Buff (leather) jerkin is military outfit adapted for polite society. Tall raised collar still in style, ruff getting larger sets. Still wearing wrist ruffs (until mid1580's). Upper sleeve now padded leg-of-mutton style that narrows towards wrist. Skirt ends in looped pickadils, as do breeches and shoulder wings (even shoes are tabbed). New-fangled loose fitting breeches were called Venetians, or slops, and fell to the knee, where stockings were gartered to them. Jerkin open at belly to display doublet. Hair still cut short. Dope fish-shaped gat.

--Venetians were large and full hose that reached beneath the knee to gartering place. Early forms evident in the 1570s fitted snuggly to thigh and worn with stockings pulled over them. Most popular in the 1580s-90s when at their fullest and most pear-shaped. P. 38 (Downing, FTWS) 
--Venetians. Hose. Voluminous with looped border in pickadils at knee. Forbisher 1577 illustration in which doublet also has looped pickadil border. P. 123(HEC16C) 
--Codpiece became less tumescent after 1570s nestling inside the trunk hose. Still used for storage of purse or handkerchief. Finally went out of style in the 1590s. P. 45 (Downing, FTWS)
--Men’s girdle (waistline belt) worn at most natural level in 1560-70 almost always supported a sheath for a sword or dagger or both. Dagger often worn behind back on right side. (Downing, FTWS) 
--Standing collar began to subside slightly after 1570. (HEC16C)
--1575-85 doublet skirt became short, a mere border. P. 91 (HEC16C)
--Trunk sleeves: wide above, narrowing to wrist (called "cannon" or "leg o mutton" style) usually pinked or slashed for decoration. Often worn with sham sleeves after 1575. P. 91(HEC16C)
--Bishop-style sleeves (stuffed with bombast) full to closed wristband sometimes without wings 1575-1600. Padding evident in forearms and toward wrists. P. 91(HEC16C)
--Shoulder wings flat welt, broad over shoulder, narrowing to armpit with scalloped or tabbed border, sometimes double 1550-70. P. 93. (HEC16C)
--Wings a series of flat looped tabs, double row being usual 1565-1590 P. 93 (HEC16C)

Above: Sir Philip Sidney c. 1578 (National Portrait Gallery, London). Note pronounced bulge to doublet belly. (Peascod doublet stayed in style from c.1575-1596). Metal gorget around neck is a military garment adapted to polite society. Codpiece still prominent. Wrist ruffles indicate pre-1583 (when cuffs came into fashion). Jerkin slashed and pinked with minimal wings and tight fitting sleeves (minimal padding). Tall standing collar, about to go out of style, topped with figure-of-eight ruff. Hair is short all around. Hose paneled and heavily bombasted into onion shape. Sword belt guarded in gold as is gorget.

General: Ostentatious. Everything changes: male dressed assumed its most extreme and artificial shape. Ruff encircled head and isolates it, a padded doublet (Peascod) curved into a point below waist, trunk hose minimal (like a mini skirt at times), thighs encase in tightly fitting canions (attached below to stockings). Demanded well-proportioned figure with long shapely legs. Strong emphasis on elongated tapering waist. Wide circular ruff and swollen hips and arms common to both sexes, all in all a less aggressively masculine style. (Ashelford, DIAE) p. 43

Above: called Martin Forbisher c. 1590 by H. Custodis, Dulwich Picture Gallery London. (Source photo Note that cuffs have replaced wrist ruffs (indicating post 1583). Large buttons now prominent. Collar full-blown cartwheel titled forward with figure-of-eight sets trimmed with reticella. Short black Spanish cloak or cape, now a staple of fashion, hung over both shoulders. Hair getting longer now. Thin gold chains circling buttons to a point that helps the waist appear narrow (as greatly desired).

Notes on 1580s:
--Shirt becomes more visible, not only wrists and standing collar visible
--Collar did not become a separate article until the mid-1580s. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--By the 1580’s the full rounded trunk hose had shrunk to a mere pad round the hips worn with canions. Canions were close fitting tubular extensions from the trunk hose to the knee. P. 49 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--A ruff placed above the falling band was sometimes worn after the 1580s until 1615. P. 110(HEC16C)
--1580s preference for cloaks with definite patterns of vertical or diagonal stripes of gold braid against a dark background. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--By 1587 large ornamental buttons on doublet are fashionable. P. 65 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--1588 four transparent lawn collars on top of each other popular. Raleigh. P. 67 (Ashelford, DIAE) 
--Saucy micro mini bum roll at the hips originated in French court became popular in England in 1580s. (Downing, FTWS)
--French cloak reached knee and later even ankle-length during the 1580s. Often decorated with bugle beads or pearls or guarded with bands of velvet or lace. P. 43 (Downing, FTWS)
--Wrist ruffs/ruffles disappear after c. 1583, replaced by cuffs forever. Very helpful hint!
--The Mandilion, pure Elizabethan eccentricity, originally a military garment, came into fashion around 1577 and reached top popularity during 1580s. A cross between a jacket and a cloak, it was hip-length and loose with side seams left open and sleeves hanging. It had a small standing collar and was fasted at throat to chest to allow it to be put on over the head and then whipped around 90 degrees so that the front and back panels swept the shoulders and the sleeves hung deflated front and back. P. 43(Downing, FTWS)
--Rebato (wire underpropper) support became fashionable from 1580 to 1635. Rebato originally term for a collar similar to a fan ruff, but after 1600 it became exclusive to the support system made of wire. The collar being supported was often trimmed with lace-like reticella and very ornate, could be worn in several layers. (Downing, FTWS)
--Folding fan appeared around 1580 and was regarded as quite a status symbol, and was often ridiculed as such. P. 57 (Downing, FTWS) 
--1575-85 doublet skirt became short, a mere border. P. 91(HEC16C)
--Standing collar continues to subside.
--In 1580s the short French cloak replaced by the long French cloak that reached to the knees or ankles but was still thrown over the left shoulder. P.50 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Wings often a series of flat looped tabs, double row being usual 1565-1590. P. 93 (HEC16C)
--Detached trunk (leg-o-mutton) and bishop sleeves (padded shoulder to wrist) still popular.

Above: Young Man Among Roses, possibly the 2nd Earl of Essex Robert Devereux, by Nicholas Hilliard between 1585-95 (Victoria & Albert Museum London). Note how jerkin, with large buttons, follows pronounced Peascod curve of the underlying doublet. Hose now mini bum roll that highlights legs in mini-skirt effect with silk stockings below. Fluted linen cartwheel ruff at neck. Sitting wearing cuffs not wrist ruffles indicating post. 1583. French cloak thrown over left shoulder with sleeves hanging as was fashionable. Short doublet skirt. Hair curly all over, a good example of the Armada perm. Melancholy disarray now in style.

Above: this Unknown Man by Hilliard 1588 (Victoria & Albert Museum) is wearing an early example of Italian cutwork on his cuffs and fall collar. He is also sporting the Armada perm hyper popular from 1585-88. Harvard's Leslie Hotson once wrote an entire book arguing this sitter was William Shakespeare.

General: the men’s look becomes more relaxed and romantic, doublet looser and worn undone at times in melancholy disarray, a soft lawn falling collar starts replacing the ruff, hair worn longer in curls, skirts get longer, ruff flattened at times and multi-layered. Italian cutwork collars become popular. Gloves now have gauntlets (wrist coverings). P. 43-4 (Ashelford, DIAE)
Above: Sir John Ashburnham 1593 by H. Custodis (Berger Collection, Denver). Note cuffs have replaced wrist ruffs. Doublet is ultra Peascod (maximum bulge) and will start to get smaller in this decade. Slashed jerkin with bishop sleeves padded from shoulder to wrist. Mini bum roll, paneled, with traces of canions visible below them. Skirt still small. Sword hangers not embroidered, only guarded in red. Neck ruff is flattened figure-of-eight style. Rare example of mustache without beard.
Notes on 1590's: 
--Gloves made with gauntlets (part of glove covering the wrist) only after about 1590. Gauntlet section was decorated with embroidery and trimmed with braid and fringing. P. 51 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Love lock 1590-1650 tress of hair grown long usually curled brought forward from nape of the neck to fall gracefully over the chest. p. 142 (HEC16C)
--During 1590s skirts of doublet more evident again. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--early 1590s Peascod doublet had reached absurd proportions, belly so exaggerated that it has curved back upon itself. Hose even briefer. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--1598 Raleigh portrait unlike portrait ten years earlier doublet is no longer distended by stuffing and is far less exaggerated in shape. Peascod fashion dying out. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Peascod doublet goes out of style c. 1598. Raleigh and Essex's Cadiz portraits still reveal peascod as late as 1596. P.70 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--In the later years of Elizabeth, white was worn universally at court. P. 102 (Ashelford, DIAE) 
--Codpiece, much reduced, finally out of style in the 1590s. P. 45 (Downing, FTWS)
--The ruff known as the “three steps and a half to the gallows” a three piled ruff c. 1590 and later. Also flattened figure of eight. P. 49 (Downing, FTWS)
--Dyed beards? Earl of Essex portrait Gheeraerts 1596 “His square cut bead is dyed a startling red in emulation of the Queen’s auburn hair.” P. 61 (Downing, FTWS) 
--Round waist end of doublets were uncommon, usual between 1590-1610. P.88 (HEC16C)
--Narrow neck band or plan round neck with small V opening in front becomes fashionable (1590-1600). P. 90 (HEC16C)
--Jerkin’s standing collar subsiding toward 90s. Jerkin collar narrow band or none at all or one turned down flat on shoulders 1590-1620. P. 94 (HEC16C)
--Boots became long and close fitting with lace trimmed boot hose tops appearing c. 1595. P. 124 (HEC16C)
Above: Sir Thomas Drake 1585-93 by H. Custodis. (Weiss Gallery. Buckland Abbey, Yelverton. Photo source wikicommons.) Good example of pinking (decorated with small perforations). Fall or falling collar of linen done in two layers the top one transparent. Cuffs at wrists. Skirt a bit longer. Minimum shoulder wings with attached bishop style sleeves with pocket. Peascod bulge still pronounced. Hair worn longer.

Early 1600s: 
--Jerkin collar narrow band or none at all or one turned down flat on shoulders 1590-1620. P. 94 (HEC16C)
--1603 portrait p. 72 shows breeches to knee. No peascod. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Falling linen collar remains popular sometimes layered.
--Rich embroidered sword belt and ganger is typical of 1600 period. P. 73 (Ashelford, DIAE) 
--Cobbe portrait of Shakespeare is “whisk style rebato” supported collar. Known in Spain as golilla. Became fashion choice at turn of century with a pristine semicircle of lawn framing the head behind. Highlighted by rich edging of cutwork or Vandyked lace. P. 5 (Downing, FTWS) 
--Round waist at end of doublet uncommon until 1590, usual between 1590-1610. P.88 (HEC16C)
--Hooks and eyes used by nobility originally but by end of century were associated with working class. P. 90 (HEC16C)
--Onset of shield-shaped rebato supported linen collar made famous by Shakespeare’s Droeshout engraving in First Folio.

General Rules and Telltales for Elizabethan Fashion:
--From France: long cloak, cartwheel ruff, peascod doublet, brief trunk hose, pantofles, curled hair, and a variety of effeminate accessories blended with other ideas from Low Countries into a unique style. P. 44 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Shirt: straight linen, usually embroidered round the neck and opening, standing collar and sleeve hand. Until 80s only visible areas of shirt were standing collar and wrist ruffle unless worn with a slash doublet and pulled through. Embroidered shirts very expensive. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--A neck band was a collar of Holland cloth, lawn, or cambric worn about the neck of a shirt. The ruff developed from a frill edging at top of the standing collar of shirt. Increased in size until it became separate article that could be starched and goffered. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--The falling band, or fall, was a collar which rose from the upper edge of the shirt neckband and was worn over the collar of the doublet, but it did not become a separate article until the mid-1580s when it was left open at the throat. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--All the methods of cutting the surface of the doublet were intended to show the colors of the lining to create contrast and meaning. Called slashing and pinking. (Not clear to me the difference between the two.) (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Fastening buttons, hooks and eye, or ties down the center. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Jerkin was worn over doublet, sleeved or not. Not worn open, fastened down center, embroidered. P. 47 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Waistcoat. Padded garment worn under the doublet for warmth or worn as an informal top garment. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Hose. Variety of style often satirized. Two parts upper or trunk hose, also known as breeches. And lower or nether hose, which could either be canions (from 1580’s onward) or stockings. P. 47 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Breeches were an alternative form of hose and were fuller and longer. They were available in three basic styles: venetians, galligaskins, and open.  Galligaskins were long and wide, reaching down to the knees. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Slops or slop hosen were all baggy breeches closed at the knee. P. 49 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Cloak. Most prized item for dandy. How worn depended on national style. Spanish was hooded, very full, and short. Dutch was hoodless, heavily guarded and worn with wide sleeves hanging loose. The French was generally worn over left shoulder and fastened under the arm (difficult to keep on).
--Gowns ankle length worn by academics, men of legal profession doctors, civic and crown officers, and ceremonial occasions. Gowns of working men restricted to calf length unless over 60 years old. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Hatbands distinctive, highly decorated. Ostrich, osprey, or heron feathers. Brimmed hat with shade popular with melancholy humor. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Revers is the upper part of garment that folds back to resemble collar. Made with same fabric as rest of garment. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Suit: jerkin with matching doublet, hose, and cloak. P. 53 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Phrase: “Resting on the pickadil border of his doublet collar” P. 53 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Codpiece, big during Henry VIII, once the visible expression of man virility, decline and gradually disappeared around 1577 from male dress under Liz. P. 57 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Metal neck gorget worn over the doublet with military men who were allowed to wear it with civilian dress. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Two of most reviled male fashions that originated in France were the use of feather fans and make-up. P. 68 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Usual for military to wear a scarf draped across the body tied under the arm. P. 73 (also gorget) a lieutenant’s scarf. Military men also wore gorget. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--the “Pawn” a shopping area south side of the Royal Exchange where posh items old, a hive of specialist. Mercers of fashion. Budge Row known for furriers, Silver Street with wigmakers, Cheapside had goldsmiths’ row etc. P. 74 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Fashion dolls circulated in England to pass on fashion trends (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Embroidered and spangled nightcaps were worn indoors with nightgown. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Falling bands could be bought either detached from shirt or attached. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Gowns could be lined with lynx (expensive) or Spanish fox (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Cutwork lace collars were of Italian origin. (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Elevation in status celebrated by new clothes and portrait (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Phrase “Straunge Fantastic Habit” used to describe outlandish clothing P. 122(Ashelford, DIAE)
--Chest armor worn for normal military purposes or on festive occasions, usually echoed the lines of the doublet.” P. 137 (Ashelford, DIAE)
--Phrase: “open lace ruff worn with transparent gauze ruching.” (Ashelford, DIAE) 
--Doublet sleeves were separate, often contrasting colors, attached by points with ribbons or narrow cords or aiglets. P. 36 (Downing, FTWS)
--French slops or gally hose or galligaskins hose that sagged to a couple of inches above the knee. Venetians extended to just below the knee. P. 37 (Downing, FTWS)
--After mid-16th century term HOSE began to refer only to upper breeches. (Downing, FTWS)
--Hose were slashed to allow soft lining material to be pulled through in puffs. P. 38 (Downing, FTWS)
--Venetians were large and full hose that reached beneath the knee to gartering place. Early forms evident in the 1570s fitted snuggly to thigh and worn with stockings pulled over them. Most popular in the 1580s-90s when at their fullest and most pear-shaped. P. 38 (Downing, FTWS)
--Everything was upholstered except the leg, considered man’s finest feature. P. 39 (Downing, FTWS)
--Canions were the tubular extension that joined from the puff of the trunk hose at upper thigh to the knee stockings (gartered at knee). P. 40 (Downing, FTWS)
--Bad form for a man to appear in public without a cloak or gown over his doublet p. 41 (Downing, FTWS)
--Full length gown for weather known as a nightgown. P 41 (Downing, FTWS)
--Cloak most glamorous and most expensive item. Spanish was short but full and had ornamental hood. Dutch had wide sleeves which were left hanging loose. The French was the most dashing. (Downing, FTWS)
--Starch revolution. Starch arrived from Holland in 1560 started a revolution for the ruff akin to alchemy, each flute set with a poking stick. Originally made of wood or bone, stick was poked into each fold and smoothed to create a set of perfect loops. In 1573 poking sticks became metal and more effective which led to more elaborate wrist ruffs. P. 48 (Downing, FTWS)
--Ruffs once prepared kept in band box, sometimes taken to parties in box and put on upon arrival. P. 49 (Downing, FTWS)
--Anne Turner, a court dressmaker worked with Indigo Jones on masque designs holder of patent for saffron starch. Helped murder Overbury. Revealed at her trial in 1616 that she had used French fashion dolls to represent the people who were subject of her spells. Voodoo dolls! Her executioner wore the saffron ruff and cuffs she’d made fashionable, which ended that fashion for saffron ruffs. P. 51 (Downing, FTWS)
--Tints used to dye ruffs vegetable dye applied at starch stage to produce pin, mauve, or yellow shades. Blue ruffs became associated with prostitutes and were banned in 1595. But remained popular because blue made the skin appear more white. (Downing, FTWS)
--Hats worn most of the time including while dining and at home. P. 55 (Downing, FTWS) 
--Small waist strong feature of this time, effect increased by bombast p. 87(HEC16C)
--Both trunk sleeves and bishop style were known as “farthingale” sleeves p. 91(HEC16C)
--Doublets had detachable, interchangeable sleeves but were never worn w/o sleeves in polite society. P. 93 (HEC16C)
--“Hand sleeve” term for wrist portion of sleeve and were not a separate item. P. 93 (HEC16C)

--Jerkin lined but not usually padded or busked worn over doublet followed shape of doublet. P. 94 (HEC16C)
--Jerkin with standing collar 1540-90 collar maximum height in the 1560’s subsiding toward 90s. P. 94 (HEC16C)
--Cloak height of fashion 1545-1600 one for morning one for afternoon one for evening p. 103. Sometimes cloaks were hard to distinguish from short gowns (HEC16C)
--Spanish cloak or cape might be worn over both shoulders. P. 106 (HEC16C)
--French cloak, worn over left shoulder, generally long to below knee even to ankle. P. 106 (HEC16C)
--Dutch cloak was full, short, often waist length, wide sleeves, was always lavishly guarded. (HEC16C)
--The Tippet. A short shoulder cape worn with a cloak or gown. Sarcenet tippets common in the 1550s. p. 107(HEC16C)
--Mandilion (1577-1620) open on side, worn sideways often, was originally a military garment, a loose hip-length jacket with standing collar, side seams open, handing sleeves, worn awry, sideways in “Colly Weston” style (“wrong”). P. 109 (HEC16C)
--Neck falling band or the fall. Always in fashion. Turned down over the standing collar of the doublet. Attached to shirt. At first small but gradually increased in depth and became flatter and spreading as the doublet collar diminished in height after 1570s. Post 1585 was often left open at throat and became a separate article. Usually linen. Embroidered in colored silk, metal thread, or blackwork common between 1540-70s. Elaborate lace borders from 1570’s on. A ruff placed above the falling band was sometimes worn after the 1580s until 1615. P. 110 (HEC16C)
--Phrase: “lace ruff with flattened figure of eight set” 1598 (HEC16C)
--Tubular pleats of ruffs were called sets. P. 112 (HEC16C)
--Starch colored red, blue purple, green or yellow, but white, and more rarely yellow, far more prevalent in England. P. 113 (HEC16C)
--Arrangements of sets: vertical figure of eight one layer 1560-1620. Flattened or horizontal figure of eight, often in several layers 1590-1620. Arranged in massed convolutions in several layers 1590s- 1605. P. 113(HEC16C)