Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Essential Glossary for Elizabethan Fashion

 The Queen's Porter by C. Ketel 1580 (Royal Collection at Hampton Court). Tall, wide-brimmed hat with band and ostrich feather. Jerkin worn open at belly, slashed, with med-long skirt bordered in looped pickadils. Slightly padded "Peascod" belly to doublet shape. Venetian hose pear-shaped falling past knees. Linen figure-of-eight ruff at neck and wrist. Sleeves slightly padded near shoulder but close to skin from elbow to wrists.

Other helpful links:

Sources consulted: 
--DRESS IN THE ELIZABETHAN AGE (BT Batsford Ltd) by Jane Ashelford 
--FASHION IN THE TIME OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (Shire Books) by Sarah Jane Downing 
--HANDBOOK OF ENGLISH COSTUME IN THE 16THCENTURY (Plays Inc) by W. and P. Cunnington

Glossary

Aglets-metal tags used for fastening or trimming, very popular 1550-60s.
Armada perm-close curls all over extremely popular during 1585-88.
Band-(also falling band) linen collar either attached to shirt or not, often in fashion, especially toward end of century.
Bishop sleeves-padded with bombast from shoulder to wrist in style popular with clerics.
Blackwork-black silk embroidery frilled upon top of white linen collars, cuffs etc. Other colors popular too. 1550's-60's.
Bongrace-bill or brim of a bonnet or cap
Cadiz beard-1596 short-lived fashion of long, square beard following the Earl of Essex's victory in Cadiz. Remained popular only with older men.
Canions-tubular close-fitting extensions of the hose from thigh to knee stocking--contrasting pattern, often metallic in appearance, highlighted men's gams
Caul-hairnet of gold thread or silk, lined, decorated
Chemise-smock, lady's undergarment
Codpiece-purse bulge near genitals used for storage, diminished after 1560 and disappeared in 1590s.
Clothes horse-a man who's never been in battle but who dresses with military accessories such as a gorget on his neck or a scarf draped across his chest and tied under the left arm.
Coif-small linen cap tied under chin
Cony-rabbit fur
Cutwork-from Italy needle-lace design filled with geometric figures aka reticella used to fill collars displayed in fan-like fashion.
Damask-rich silk floral or geometric
Doublet-garment often leather worn over the shirt, very popular throughout Elizabeth's time, decorated with panels, slashes, pinking, attaches to sleeves at hemmed wings, often with a peascod bulge (of bombast) to lower stomach. Usually worn under a jerkin (jacket).
Farthingale-understructure to produce either funnel- or bell- shape in women's dresses. 
French cloak-short, slung over left shoulder, got longer, reached knee, then ankle length after 1580. 
Galligaskins-breeches, baggy, to knees.
Gauntlet-the wrist covering section of a glove, almost always ornamented.
Girdle-belt or cord or chain that accentuates waistline.
Gorget-metal military yoke adapted for polite society.
Gull-loud, loudly dressed, over-perfumed, and late-arriving dandies famous for baiting the actors at theaters. 
Gum-used after 1570 to brush hair and moustaches upward.
Guard-bordered with bands of contrasting material.
Hangers-support of sword attached to sword belt.
Hose-garment at hips for men, often bombasted and paneled, could extend as far as knees or end in bum roll for mini-skirt effect. Terms also applied to attached stockings. 
Jerkin-jacket-like garment worn over doublet that conformed to doublets shaped sometimes sleeveless, worn closed down center, embroidered, slashed, pinked.
Kirtle-skirt (see below).
Leg of mutton style sleeves-detachable with padded shoulders to elbow but close to body from elbow to wrist.
Marquisetto beard-cut close to chin but more visible at peak.
Mercer-seller of imported fabrics.
Mini bum roll-short upper hose wide at waist ending above thighs for mini-skirt effect to highlight men's gams, popular 1580's-90's.
Oes-eyelets used to decorate.
Partlet-cloth or accessory that covers upper chest.
Peascod-doublet style with padded belly popular 1575-95.
Pinking-small holes or slits/slashes used for decoration .
Pickadil-tabs sometimes looped used decoratively at borders (mostly before 1590) also used to support small ruffs along collar especially in 1553-70.
Pickdevant beard-short and pointed with brushed up moustaches after 1570.
Popinjay-a man perceived as overly fond of fashion, a dandy.
Puffs-material or lining pulled through slash garment.
Rebato-underpropper support system behind head for tilted ruff or cutwork collars; also a name for those type collars.
Revers-upper part of garment folded back near neck to resemble a collar--same material as rest of garment.
Ruff-starched linen folded in patterned sets used for collars and wrists.
Skirt-bottom end of doublet or jerkin often guarded or decorated with looped pickadils etc. 
Slashing-slits used decoratively.
Slops-baggy French breeches that sagged to knees.
Spanish farthingale-hooped triangle-shaped under support system to woman's skirt, popular in 1550's-1570's.
Spanish kettledrum-most popular men's hose till 1570, onion-shaped, reached to mid-thigh.
Standing collar-prominent feature of doublet until 1570 with collar reaching to ears and topped with pickadils that supported small ruff.
Starch-arrived in England c. early 1570's, revolutionized the linen collar.
Stomacher-stiffened material shaped like an arrow tapering toward center of bodice; it purpose was to makes the waist appear more narrow.
Tippet--short shoulder cape worn with cloak or gown.
Trunk hose-swelled material filled with bombast from the waistband, often onion shaped, later evolved into slops or breeches.
Vandyke beard-long and pointed 1560 onward.
Venetians-slops, full breeches that close at the knee, either baggy of close fitting
Wings-raised shoulders of the doublet where the sleeves are attached, hemmed and decorative to hide attachment points. 
Wrist ruffle-ruff at wrist attached to shirt, replaced by cuffs in 1583

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